LPIC-1 exam 102, Part 2 of 2, version 5.0 exam Dumps

102-500 exam Format | Course Contents | Course Outline | exam Syllabus | exam Objectives

Exam Title : LPIC-1 Linux Administrator
Exam ID : 102-500
Exam Duration : 90 mins
Questions in exam : 60
Passing Score : 500 / 800
Exam Center : LPI Marketplace
Real Questions : LPI LPIC-1 Real Questions
VCE practice exam : LPI 102-500 Certification VCE Practice Test

Topic Details
Topic 105: Shells and Shell Scripting
105.1 Customize and use the shell environment
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users' needs. Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles. Key Knowledge Areas:
- Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell.
- Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands.
- Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts.
- Set command search path with the proper directory.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- .
- source
- /etc/bash.bashrc
- /etc/profile
- env
- export
- set
- unset
- ~/.bash_profile
- ~/.bash_login
- ~/.profile
- ~/.bashrc
- ~/.bash_logout
- function
- alias
105.2 Customize or write simple scripts
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new Bash scripts. Key Knowledge Areas:
- Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests).
- Use command substitution.
- Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command.
- Execute chained commands.
- Perform conditional mailing to the superuser.
- Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line.
- Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- for
- while
- test
- if
- read
- seq
- exec
- ||
- && Topic 106: User Interfaces and Desktops
106.1 Install and configure X11
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure X11. Key Knowledge Areas:
- Understanding of the X11 architecture.
- Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file.
- Overwrite specific aspects of Xorg configuration, such as keyboard layout.
- Understand the components of desktop environments, such as display managers and window managers.
- Manage access to the X server and display applications on remote X servers.
- Awareness of Wayland. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/X11/xorg.conf
- /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/
- ~/.xsession-errors
- xhost
- xauth
- DISPLAY
- X 106.2 Graphical Desktops
Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be aware of major Linux desktops. Furthermore, candidates should be aware of protocols used to access remote desktop sessions.
 
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Awareness of major desktop environments
- Awareness of protocols to access remote desktop sessions
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- KDE
- Gnome
- Xfce
- X11
- XDMCP
- VNC
- Spice
- RDP
106.3 Accessibility
Weight: 1
Description: Demonstrate knowledge and awareness of accessibility technologies.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes.
- Basic knowledge of assistive technology.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- High Contrast/Large Print Desktop Themes.
- Screen Reader.
- Braille Display.
- Screen Magnifier.
- On-Screen Keyboard.
- Sticky/Repeat keys.
- Slow/Bounce/Toggle keys.
- Mouse keys.
- Gestures.
- Voice recognition.
Topic 107: Administrative Tasks
107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files
Weight: 5
Description: Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Add, modify and remove users and groups.
- Manage user/group info in password/group databases.
- Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/passwd
- /etc/shadow
- /etc/group
- /etc/skel/
- chage
- getent
- groupadd
- groupdel
- groupmod
- passwd
- useradd
- userdel
- usermod
107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to use cron and systemd timers to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Manage cron and at jobs.
- Configure user access to cron and at services.
- Understand systemd timer units.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}/
- /etc/at.deny
- /etc/at.allow
- /etc/crontab
- /etc/cron.allow
- /etc/cron.deny
- /var/spool/cron/
- crontab
- at
- atq
- atrm
- systemctl
- systemd-run
107.3 Localisation and internationalisation
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to localize a system in a different language than English. As well, an understanding of why LANG=C is useful when scripting.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Configure locale settings and environment variables.
- Configure timezone settings and environment variables.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/timezone
- /etc/localtime
- /usr/share/zoneinfo/
- LC_*
- LC_ALL
- LANG
- TZ
- /usr/bin/locale
- tzselect
- timedatectl
- date
- iconv
- UTF-8
- ISO-8859
- ASCII
- Unicode
Topic 108: Essential System Services
108.1 Maintain system time
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Set the system date and time.
- Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC.
- Configure the correct timezone.
- Basic NTP configuration using ntpd and chrony.
- Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service.
- Awareness of the ntpq command.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /usr/share/zoneinfo/
- /etc/timezone
- /etc/localtime
- /etc/ntp.conf
- /etc/chrony.conf
- date
- hwclock
- timedatectl
- ntpd
- ntpdate
- chronyc
- pool.ntp.org
108.2 System logging
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to configure rsyslog. This objective also includes configuring the logging daemon to send log output to a central log server or accept log output as a central log server. Use of the systemd journal subsystem is covered. Also, awareness of syslog and syslog-ng as alternative logging systems is included.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Basic configuration of rsyslog.
- Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions.
- Query the systemd journal.
- Filter systemd journal data by criteria such as date, service or priority.
- Configure persistent systemd journal storage and journal size.
- Delete old systemd journal data.
- Retrieve systemd journal data from a rescue system or file system copy.
- Understand interaction of rsyslog with systemd-journald.
- Configuration of logrotate.
- Awareness of syslog and syslog-ng.
Terms and Utilities:
- /etc/rsyslog.conf
- /var/log/
- logger
- logrotate
- /etc/logrotate.conf
- /etc/logrotate.d/
- journalctl
- systemd-cat
- /etc/systemd/journald.conf
- /var/log/journal/
108.3 Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) basics
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be aware of the commonly available MTA programs and be able to perform basic forward and alias configuration on a client host. Other configuration files are not covered.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Create e-mail aliases.
- Configure e-mail forwarding.
- Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, exim) (no configuration).
Terms and Utilities:
- ~/.forward
- sendmail emulation layer commands
- newaliases
- mail
- mailq
- postfix
- sendmail
- exim
108.4 Manage printers and printing
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs using CUPS and the LPD compatibility interface.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers).
- Manage user print queues.
- Troubleshoot general printing problems.
- Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
- /etc/cups/
- lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)
Topic 109: Networking Fundamentals
109.1 Fundamentals of internet protocols
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of TCP/IP network fundamentals.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation.
- Knowledge of the differences between private and public "dotted quad" IP addresses.
- Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports and services (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995).
- Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP.
- Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6.
- Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/services
- IPv4, IPv6
- Subnetting
- TCP, UDP, ICMP
109.2 Persistent network configuration
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to manage the persistent network configuration of a Linux host.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Understand basic TCP/IP host configuration.
- Configure ethernet and wi-fi network using NetworkManager.
- Awareness of systemd-networkd.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/hostname
- /etc/hosts
- /etc/nsswitch.conf
- /etc/resolv.conf
- nmcli
- hostnamectl
- ifup
- ifdown
109.3 Basic network troubleshooting
Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to troubleshoot networking issues on client hosts.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Manually configure network interfaces, including viewing and changing the configuration of network interfaces using iproute2.
- Manually configure routing, including viewing and changing routing tables and setting the default route using iproute2.
- Debug problems associated with the network configuration.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- ip
- hostname
- ss
- ping
- ping6
- traceroute
- traceroute6
- tracepath
- tracepath6
- netcat
- ifconfig
- netstat
- route
109.4 Configure client side DNS
Weight: 2
Description: Candidates should be able to configure DNS on a client host.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Query remote DNS servers.
- Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers.
- Modify the order in which name resolution is done.
- Debug errors related to name resolution.
- Awareness of systemd-resolved.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/hosts
- /etc/resolv.conf
- /etc/nsswitch.conf
- host
- dig
- getent
Topic 110: Security
110.1 Perform security administration tasks
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set.
- Set or change user passwords and password aging information.
- Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system.
- Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage.
- Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in.
- Basic sudo configuration and usage.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- find
- passwd
- fuser
- lsof
- nmap
- chage
- netstat
- sudo
-/etc/sudoers
- su
- usermod
- ulimit
- who, w, last
110.2 Setup host security
Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work.
- Turn off network services not in use.
- Understand the role of TCP wrappers.
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- /etc/nologin
- /etc/passwd
- /etc/shadow
- /etc/xinetd.d/
- /etc/xinetd.conf
- systemd.socket
- /etc/inittab
- /etc/init.d/
- /etc/hosts.allow
- /etc/hosts.deny
110.3 Securing data with encryption
Weight: 4
Description: The candidate should be able to use public key techniques to secure data and communication.
Key Knowledge Areas:
- Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage.
- Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys.
- Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation.
- Use GPG to encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify files.
- Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels).
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
- ssh
- ssh-keygen
- ssh-agent
- ssh-add
- ~/.ssh/id_rsa and id_rsa.pub
- ~/.ssh/id_dsa and id_dsa.pub
- ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa and id_ecdsa.pub
- ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 and id_ed25519.pub
- /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key and ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
- /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key and ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
- /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key and ssh_host_ecdsa_key.pub
- /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key and ssh_host_ed25519_key.pub
- ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
- ssh_known_hosts
- gpg
- gpg-agent
- ~/.gnupg/

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102-500 Part course outline

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102-500 Part course outline :: Article Creator

making a PCB In every thing: Upverter

For the final five months, I’ve been writing a sequence of posts describing a way to build a PCB in every bit of software out there. each put up during this series takes a reference schematic and board, and recreates all the facets in a completely new PCB device.

There are three explanation why this type of evaluate is beneficial. First, every submit during this collection is without difficulty a review of a specific tool. Already we’ve performed Fritzing (thumbs down), KiCad (thumbs up), Eagle (thumbs up), and Protel Autotrax (exciting from a old perspective). Secondly, every publish during this collection is a quick getting all started guide for every PCB device. considering the fact that the reference schematic and board are sufficiently complex for ninety% of commonplace PCB design initiatives, each of those posts is a brief how-to e-book for a specific tool. Thirdly, this sequence of posts serves as a basis of evaluation between distinct tools. as an example, that you could do anything you want in KiCad and most of what you need in Eagle. Fritzing is bad, and Autotrax is the digital edition of the rub-on traces you bought at Radio Shack in 1987.

With that introduction out of ways, let’s get cranking on Upverter.

a bit bit about Upverter

Upverter changed into centered in 2010 as a wholly internet-primarily based EDA device aimed at college students, hobbyists, and Open Hardware circuit designers. This changed into one of the crucial first completely net-based mostly circuit design equipment and Upverter’s relative success has been a bellwether for other fully web-based EDA equipment akin to circuits.io and EasyEDA.

i would like to take a second to point out Upverter is a Y Combinator enterprise (W11), which pretty much guarantees this publish will make it to the excellent of Hacker news. Go combat for imaginary cyber web facets amongst yourselves.

Upverter is a enterprise after all, so how are they making money? Most EDA suites present a free, constrained version for private, hobbyist, and ‘maker’ tasks, and Upverter is no exception. The knowledgeable tier offers a couple of extra points together with CAM export, 3D preview, an API, simulation (coming quickly), BOM administration, and limitless inner most projects for $125 per seat per month, or $1200 per seat per year.

To offer you a foundation of assessment for that subscription fee, Eagle CAD’s new license scheme gives you every thing – 999 schematic sheets, sixteen layers, and unlimited board area – for $sixty five per month, or $500 per year. Altium’s CircuitStudio comes in at $a thousand for a one-year license. There are extra high priced EDA suites reminiscent of Altium dressmaker and OrCAD, however you have to call a income guy simply to get a value.

Upverter is positioning itself as a professional device at an expert rate. There are improved tools obtainable, of path, however there are lots of businesses available designing items with tools that can charge $500 to $1000 per seat per yr. In any event, here is all tutorial; the Hackaday crowd gravitates towards the free end of the market, even if that skill beer or speech.

a large draw for Upverter is their materials Concierge service. You’ll on no account must create an element from scratch once again, so the sales replica says. curiously, Upverter is using a combination of very slick scripts to tug half layouts off a datasheet and human intervention / sanity verify to create these constituents. Does it work? We’re going to find out within the evaluation beneath.

making a Schematic

we have three issues to do in Upverter. First, we’re going to recreate the schematic given within the introduction to this series of posts. 2nd, we’re going to make a part from scratch in Upverter. in this case, we’re going to build the PDIP ATtiny85. finally, we’re going to turn this schematic into a board. Let’s start with the end. here’s the accomplished schematic:

schematic

here's, extra or much less, precisely what we need. here’s how I obtained to this point.

Upverter’s main focal point and selling element is that you just on no account should worry about part libraries. There are handiest so many footprints, there are simplest so many datasheets, and this is an internet-based EDA tool, anyway; it handiest makes feel each half may still be attainable. In follow, or at least for the jellybean ingredients I’m the usage of for this essential microcontroller board, every little thing relatively plenty works out. A 1×four 0.1″ header is an identical no remember who the company is.

Clicking on the little chip icon within the toolbar brings up the Add part dialog. look for an element, use the hunt filters, and you’ll doubtless find what you’re looking for.

addcomponent

Parts names and values can be easily changed by clicking on the part name or value.parts names and values can also be effectively changed by clicking on the part name or price.

With the parts chosen and laid out, the handiest element left to do is draw a few wires, area a couple of VCC and GND symbols, and identify all the nets. here's convenient ample with the toolbar on the left-hand facet of the display. For those of us who aren’t rather into the total internet 2.0 aspect, Upverter offers hotkeys. Press ‘N’ to add a net, ‘F’ to flip a variety, ‘R’ to rotate a variety, and arrow keys to circulate the window round.

For any one who has used PCB design application before, all of this should be normal. There are a few oddities of the Upverter schematic interface, though:

  • Resistors, caps, and everything else that comes in commonplace programs is handy. every thing else — inductors and switches — is tough to find in the interface.
  • For some ungodly motive, Upverter thinks your mouse handiest has one button. Dragging the view around with the ‘hand’ device is a chore.
  • Values may also be edited without delay on the schematic, no longer just in the course of the modal dialog accessed by using double clicking a part.
  • The bus icon is a ‘wheels on the bus’ bus.
  • Making an element From Scratch

    Upverter has a lot of elements in their database, and they have an element Concierge service with a purpose to make constituents for you. For this part of this tutorial and evaluation, we don’t care about that. this is how you create a PDIP ATtiny85 from scratch. Does Upverter have already got a PDIP ATtiny85 part? sure, but that’s no longer the factor of why I’m doing this.

    There’s a reasonably finished and up to date guide on the Upverter wiki, besides the fact that children there are a number of tweaks and caveats that may still be mentioned and aren't glaring at all.

    the first aspect to do when creating an element from scratch in Upverter is to edit the attributes of the half. These attributes consist of the part number, company, package, a link to a datasheet, Digikey and Mouser half numbers, and temperature scores. this is an easy chip for an easy board with a view to only be used as soon as, so entering ‘ATtiny85’ within the identify container is decent ample.

    The pin supervisor The footprint generator schematic-symbolThe autogenerated schematic image. no longer dangerous.

    next up is producing pins for the schematic symbol. click on on the ‘Pins’ label in the right hand toolbar, click the ‘edit’ button, and the Pin supervisor dialog pops up. the primary column is the pin number, during this case beginning at one, going counter clockwise round a PDIP part. check with the ATtiny85 datasheet for the 2d column, the pin identify. That’s PB0 via PB5, VCC, and GND. The following couple of columns define the function of the pin, and which side of the schematic symbol they’ll be autogenerated on. Hit ‘save’ in the Pin manager, and also you’ll have some thing just like the picture on the correct. That’s now not bad, basically.

    With the schematic image out of the way, it’s time to make the footprint.

    at the accurate menu bar, hit the Footprint button, and click on the footprint icon on the left-hand toolbar. This gets definitely cool.

    The auto-generated footprint.The auto-generated footprint.

    The Footprint Generator has options for practically every kind of package you’ll ever want. if you need a DIP, choose DIP from the drop-down menu. if you’re working with an SSOP half, choose that. deciding upon any general brings up alternate options for the number of leads, the top of the equipment, the pitch of the leads, and all the dimensions you’d find in the lower back pages of a datasheet. I couldn’t find any alternatives for in reality weird and historic components like PGA applications, but Upverter’s footprint generator is greater than sufficient to automagically create materials with the aid of simply coming into numbers from a datasheet. It’s relatively cool.

    With the schematic and a customized part completed, it’s time to flow on to the final step: truly making a PCB.

    making a PCB

    We’re achieved with the schematic, so hit the ‘PCB design’ button at the accurate of the screen. right here’s what we get:

    pcbnewEww.

    It looks grotesque, but that’s nice double click on the historical past of the window to open the Board outline dialog. here's the place you place the size of the board. considering that we’re just copying the board offered within the introduction to this series of posts, enter forty four.45mm x 20.95mm in the dialog. movement the components around, and you’ll eventually get some thing that seems like this:

    The components, arranged. We can work with this.The accessories, organized. we are able to work with this.

    pourinspectoronce more, we’re comfortably copying what we’ve already executed half a dozen instances now. Routing is easy adequate with snap-to and a neat characteristic I’ve best viewed in Photoshop, Illustrator, and their ilk — computerized alignment to other pads.

    The best complicated half about this construct is the floor and vigor pours. right here’s the trick: to cease drawing a pour polygon, press break out.

    Draw a pour on the correct copper layer, assign it to the GND web, draw a pour on the backside copper layer, assign it to the VCC web, and get the VCC pad on the USB connector to the other side. That’s it, it’s completed:

    The completed Upverter boardThe achieved Upverter board Sending the board off, exporting, and the takeaway

    wish to take a look at this assignment for yourself? That’s probably the most bonuses of a web-primarily based tool. here you go.

    The exported gerbers, thrown into OSH Park's web interface.The exported gerbers, thrown into OSH Park’s web interface.

    Upverter allows you to design a PCB of their tool, however unusually they don’t have an agreement with any one to sell the genuine small creation runs. I locate this very unusual; it’s a fine strategy to make a bit of of alternate for Upverter. Fritzing, as an example, has an agreement with a fab condominium in Berlin to supply boards at a few 300% markup over OSH Park.

    as a substitute of upselling, Upverter has a awesome array of alternate options to export a bunch of statistics. every thing from decide on and vicinity statistics to 3D fashions in STEP format is attainable. Gerbers are only a single get button away, and sure, they work with OSH Park’s web interface.

    ultimate options

    So, how does Upverter examine to other design tools? Remarkably smartly, personally. It’s a whole lot greater refined than the extra primitive equipment I’ve taken a glance at. Routing is convenient, and even constructing a part from scratch is comparatively simple. Is it respectable sufficient for a hobbyist? fully. Is it first rate satisfactory for a group of engineers? That’s one other query entirely.

    When it involves EDA equipment that can charge money, there are two tiers. Altium and OrCAD are the desirable tier. that you can’t even get a value for these things without calling a salesman. The second tier comprises Eagle CAD, which is greatly more cost-effective than a each year subscription to Upverter. once more, the Hackaday crowd gravitates towards free as in beer and speech, but it surely is some thing to believe about.

    One difficulty I did have with Upverter turned into a number of graphical system faults. To be fair, i was running this in Microsoft area, however a few instances in growing this tutorial Upverter became into the cowl of a vaporwave album. even if here is Upverter or part is up within the air, but it surely is an issue.

    neatly that’s carried out

    This concludes the creating a PCB in every little thing submit on Upverter. in case you have a guideline for what PCB design tool to cowl subsequent, depart a observe in the comments.


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