Nokia Cloud Packet Core test Dumps

4A0-M05 test Format | Course Contents | Course Outline | test Syllabus | test Objectives

Exam Name: Nokia Cloud Packet Core
Exam Number: 4A0-M05
Credit Towards Certifications: Nokia Cloud Packet Core Expert | Nokia Service Routing Architect
Exam Duration: 90 minutes
Required Passing Score: 80%
Exam Appointment Duration: 135 minutes.
This is the test duration plus a 45 minute tutorial on computer-based examinations.
Number of Questions: 40
Language: English

Course Objectives
- Describe the architecture of the Nokia CPC and its cloud native design capabilities
- Illustrate the network function virtualization platform used for CPC
- Describe the management architecture of the CPC
- Explain key virtualization concepts
- Use CBAM to deploy CMM and CMG
- Explain the VNF architecture of the Nokia CMM
- Explain the VNF architecture of the Nokia CMG
- Describe the virtual machine (VM) components of the CMM and CMG VNFs
- Describe the IP networks required by the CMM and CMG VNFs
- Describe the dimensioning, scaling, resiliency, and lifecycle management of the CMM and CMG VNFs
- Describe the architecture and the components of the Nokia Smart Plan Suite (SPS) VNF
- Identify the different 5G deployment options
- Illustrate how the Nokia CPC architecture supports the evolution towards 5G
- Describe 5G non-standalone option 3
- Verify the health of CPC VNFs including their stacks, VMs, and networks
- Troubleshoot virtualization infrastructure using CLI commands
- Configure the CMM and CMG on a Nokia CPC for an LTE Attach
- Troubleshoot LTE Attach failure scenarios using UE call traces and logs
- Perform Life-Cycle Management (LCM) operations on CMM and CMG with CBAM

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Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Extensions for Synchronous Optical network (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) handle

Autor(en): E. Mannie, D. Papadimitriou Ersetzt: RFC3946

This document provides minor clarification to RFC 3946. This document is a partner to the Generalized Multi-protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) signaling. It defines the Synchronous Optical community (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) know-how-selected suggestions necessary when GMPLS signaling is used....

network Working community E. Mannie Request for feedback: 4606 Perceval Obsoletes: 3946 D. Papadimitriou class: necessities music Alcatel August 2006 Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Extensions for Synchronous Optical network (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) control popularity of This Memo This document specifies a web necessities track protocol for the internet group, and requests discussion and information for improvements. Please check with the existing edition of the "internet reputable Protocol specifications" (STD 1) for the standardization state and standing of this protocol. Distribution cof this memo is limitless. Copyright note Copyright (C) The cyber web Society (2006). abstract This doc gives minor clarification to RFC3946. This doc is a companion to the Generalized Multi-protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) signaling. It defines the Synchronous Optical community (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) technology- certain information needed when GMPLS signaling is used. desk of Contents 1. Introduction ....................................................2 2. SONET and SDH traffic Parameters ................................3 2.1. SONET/SDH traffic Parameters ...............................three 2.2. RSVP-TE details ............................................9 2.three. CR-LDP details ............................................10 three. SONET and SDH Labels ...........................................11 4. Acknowledgements ...............................................sixteen 5. protection issues ........................................sixteen 6. IANA issues ............................................sixteen Contributors ......................................................17 Appendix 1. sign class Values Extension for VC-3 .................20 Annex 1. Examples .................................................20 Normative References ..............................................23 Mannie & Papadimitriou necessities track [Page 1] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 1. Introduction As described in [RFC3945], Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) extends MPLS from supporting packet (Packet Switching competent, or PSC) interfaces and switching to encompass assist of four new classes of interfaces and switching: Layer-2 switch able (L2SC), Time-Division Multiplex (TDM), Lambda swap competent (LSC) and Fiber-change competent (FSC). A useful description of the extensions to MPLS signaling vital to assist the brand new classes of interfaces and switching is equipped in [RFC3471]. [RFC3473] describes RSVP-TE-certain codecs and mechanisms mandatory to guide all five courses of interfaces, and CR- LDP extensions can also be found in [RFC3472]. This document items particulars which are certain to Synchronous Optical network (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). Per [RFC3471], SONET/SDH-specific parameters are carried in the signaling protocol in site visitors parameter specific objects. The keyword phrases "must", "should no longer", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL now not", "should still", "may still not", "informed", "might also", and "non-compulsory" during this doc are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119]. moreover, the reader is assumed to be common with the terminology in American national standards Institute (ANSI) [T1.105] and ITU-T [G.707], as well as with that in [RFC3471], [RFC3472], and [RFC3473]. the following abbreviations are used in this doc: DCC: information Communications Channel. LOVC: lower-Order virtual Container HOVC: larger-Order virtual Container MS: Multiplex area. MSOH: Multiplex area overhead. POH: route overhead. RS: Regenerator area. RSOH: Regenerator area overhead. SDH: Synchronous digital hierarchy. SOH: part overhead. SONET: Synchronous Optical network. SPE: Synchronous Payload Envelope. STM(-N): Synchronous Transport Module (-N) (SDH). STS(-N): Synchronous Transport signal-stage N (SONET). VC-n: virtual Container-n (SDH). VTn: virtual Tributary-n (SONET). Mannie & Papadimitriou standards song [Page 2] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 2. SONET and SDH site visitors Parameters This section defines the GMPLS traffic parameters for SONET/SDH. The protocol-selected formats, for the SONET/SDH-particular RSVP-TE objects and CR-LDP TLVs, are described in Sections 2.2 and a couple of.3, respectively. These traffic parameters specify a base set of capabilities for SONET ANSI [T1.105] and SDH ITU-T [G.707], equivalent to concatenation and transparency. different documents may additionally additional boost this set of capabilities sooner or later. for instance, signaling for SDH over PDH ITU-T G.832 or sub-STM-0 ITU-T G.708 interfaces could be defined. The traffic parameters described hereafter (see part 2.1) have to be used when the label is encoded as SUKLM as defined in this memo (see part three). They should even be used when soliciting for one in all part/RS or Line/MS overhead clear STS-1/STM-0, STS-three*N/STM-N (N=1, 4, sixteen, 64, 256) signals. The traffic parameters and label encoding described in [RFC3471], area three.2, ought to be used for totally transparent STS-1/STM-0, STS-three*N/STM-N (N=1, 4, sixteen, sixty four, 256) sign requests. a fully transparent sign is one for which all overhead is left unmodified by intermediate nodes; i.e., when all described Transparency (T) bits would be set if the site visitors parameters described in area 2.1 had been used. 2.1. SONET/SDH site visitors Parameters The site visitors parameters for SONET/SDH are prepared as follows: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 three four 5 6 7 eight 9 0 1 2 three 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | sign class | RCC | NCC | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | NVC | Multiplier (MT) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Transparency (T) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Profile (P) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Annex 1 lists examples of SONET and SDH signal coding. Mannie & Papadimitriou specifications music [Page 3] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 o) signal classification (ST): 8 bits This field indicates the class of elementary signal that constitutes the requested Label Switched direction (LSP). a couple of transforms will also be utilized successively on the basic signal to construct the last signal definitely being requested for the LSP. each seriously change application is not obligatory and should be not noted if zero, except the Multiplier (MT), which can not be zero and is unnoticed if equal to one. Transforms ought to be applied strictly in here order: - First, contiguous concatenation (by using the RCC and NCC fields) can also be optionally utilized on the fundamental signal, leading to a contiguously concatenated sign. - 2d, digital concatenation (by using the NVC container) may also be optionally utilized on the elementary sign, resulting in a essentially concatenated sign. - Third, some transparency (by using the Transparency field) can be optionally specific when a body is requested as signal reasonably than an SPE- or VC-based mostly signal. - Fourth, a multiplication (through the use of the Multiplier box) can be optionally applied directly on the elementary sign, on the contiguously concatenated signal acquired from the first part, on the essentially concatenated sign received from the 2d part, or on these indicators mixed with some transparency. permitted sign classification values for SONET/SDH are price class (fundamental sign) ----- ------------------------ 1 VT1.5 SPE / VC-11 2 VT2 SPE / VC-12 three VT3 SPE 4 VT6 SPE / VC-2 5 STS-1 SPE / VC-three 6 STS-3c SPE / VC-four 7 STS-1 / STM-0 (simplest when transparency is requested) 8 STS-3 / STM-1 (best when transparency is requested) 9 STS-12 / STM-4 (simplest when transparency is requested) 10 STS-forty eight / STM-sixteen (handiest when transparency is requested) 11 STS-192 / STM-64 (handiest when transparency is requested) 12 STS-768 / STM-256 (only when transparency is requested) Mannie & Papadimitriou necessities track [Page 4] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH control August 2006 A dedicated sign classification is assigned to a SONET STS-3c SPE as an alternative of being coded as a contiguous concatenation of three STS-1 SPEs. This is achieved to be able to provide handy interworking between SONET and SDH signaling. Appendix 1 provides one sign classification (non-compulsory) to the above values. o) Requested Contiguous Concatenation (RCC): eight bits This field is used to request the optional SONET/SDH contiguous concatenation of the elementary signal. This box is a vector of flags. every flag suggests the assist of a selected classification of contiguous concatenation. a number of flags may also be set on the identical time to point out a call. These flags permit an upstream node to indicate to a downstream node the several types of contiguous concatenation that it helps. besides the fact that children, the downstream node decides which one to make use of in line with its personal rules. A downstream node receiving concurrently a couple of flag chooses a specific type of contiguous concatenation, if any is supported, and in line with criteria that are out of this document's scope. A downstream node that does not help any of the concatenation kinds indicated through the field must refuse the LSP request. In particular, it should refuse the LSP request if it would not guide contiguous concatenation in any respect. When a few flags have been set, the upstream node retrieves the (single) type of contiguous concatenation the downstream node has selected by looking on the place indicated via the first label and the variety of labels as returned with the aid of the downstream node (see also section three). The total box is set to zero to indicate that no contiguous concatenation is requested in any respect (default price). A non-zero container shows that some contiguous concatenation is requested. here flag is described: Flag 1 (bit 1): regular contiguous concatenation. Flag 1 indicates that the standard SONET/SDH contiguous concatenation, as described in [T1.105]/[G.707], is supported. observe that bit 1 is the low-order bit. other flags are reserved for extensions; if now not used, they must be set to zero when despatched and should still be disregarded when received. Mannie & Papadimitriou requirements song [Page 5] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 See be aware 1 within the part on the NCC in regards to the SONET contiguous concatenation of STS-1 SPEs when the number of add-ons is a dissimilar of three. o) variety of Contiguous add-ons (NCC): sixteen bits This container suggests the variety of similar SONET SPEs/SDH VCs (i.e., fundamental signal) that are requested to be concatenated, as targeted within the RCC container. observe 1: When a SONET STS-Nc SPE with N=three*X is requested, the elementary signal to be used should all the time be an STS-3c_SPE signal classification, and the value of NCC need to all the time be equal to X. This permits facilitating the interworking between SONET and SDH. In particular, it means that the contiguous concatenation of three STS-1 SPEs can't be requested, as in accordance with this specification this type of signal ought to be coded the use of the STS-3c SPE sign type. note 2: When a clear STS-N/STM-N signal is requested it's confined to a single contiguously concatenated STS-Nc_SPE/VC-four-Nc, the sign category ought to be STS-N/STM-N, RCC with flag 1, NCC set to 1. The NCC price have to be per the type of contiguous concatenation being requested within the RCC box. In selected, this field is irrelevant if no contiguous concatenation is requested (RCC = 0). if so, it should be set to zero when sent and should be neglected when got. A RCC value distinctive from 0 implies a host of contiguous accessories more desirable than or equal to 1. word 3: Following these suggestions, when a VC-4 signal is requested, the RCC and the NCC values should be set to 0, whereas for an STS-3c SPE sign, the RCC and the NCC values should be set 1. besides the fact that children, if native situations enable, when you consider that the surroundings of the RCC and NCC values is locally driven, the soliciting for upstream node may additionally set the RCC and NCC values to both SDH or SONET settings with out impacting the function. moreover, the downstream node may still accept the requested values if local circumstances enable. If these values can't be supported, the receiver downstream node may still generate a PathErr/NOTIFICATION message (see Sections 2.2 and a pair of.three, respectively). o) variety of digital components (NVC): 16 bits This box suggests the variety of signals which are requested to be just about concatenated. These alerts are the entire identical classification by way of definition. they're fundamental signal SPEs/VCs for which sign forms are described during this document; i.e., VT1.5_SPE/VC-eleven, Mannie & Papadimitriou requisites tune [Page 6] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 VT2_SPE/VC-12, VT3_SPE, VT6_SPE/VC-2, STS-1_SPE/VC-3, or STS-3c_SPE/VC-4. This container is determined to 0 (default cost) to indicate that no virtual concatenation is requested. o) Multiplier (MT): sixteen bits This box shows the variety of identical indicators which are requested for the LSP; i.e., that kind the ultimate signal. These signals will also be similar fundamental alerts, identical contiguously concatenated indicators, or identical well-nigh concatenated alerts. observe that all of those indicators accordingly belong to the equal LSP. The big difference between the components of distinctive virtually concatenated indicators is achieved by the use of the order of the labels that are distinct in the signaling. the primary set of labels need to describe the first element (set of individual signals belonging to the first virtual concatenated signal), the 2d set have to describe the 2nd component (set of individual indicators belonging to the 2d virtual concatenated sign), and so forth. This field is decided to one (default cost) to point out that precisely one illustration of a sign is being requested. Intermediate and egress nodes have to examine that the node itself and the interfaces on which the LSP might be centered can help the requested multiplier price. If the requested values cannot be supported, the receiver node have to generate a PathErr/NOTIFICATION message (see Sections 2.2 and 2.three, respectively). Zero is an invalid value. If a 0 is obtained, the node ought to generate a PathErr/NOTIFICATION message (see Sections 2.2 and a pair of.three, respectively). notice 1: When a transparent STS-N/STM-N signal is requested it is confined to a single contiguously concatenated STS-Nc-SPE/VC-four-Nc, the multiplier box need to be equal to 1 (handiest valid cost). o) Transparency (T): 32 bits This container is a vector of flags that suggests the class of transparency being requested. a number of flags will also be mixed to deliver several types of transparency. not all combos are always legitimate. The default cost for this container is zero, i.e., no transparency is requested. Mannie & Papadimitriou requirements song [Page 7] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH control August 2006 Transparency, as described from the point of view of this signaling specification, is only relevant to the fields in the SONET/SDH frame overheads. within the SONET case, these are the fields within the section Overhead (SOH) and the line Overhead (LOH). in the SDH case, these are the fields within the Regenerator part Overhead (RSOH), the Multiplex part overhead (MSOH), and the pointer fields between the two. With SONET, the pointer fields are a part of the LOH. be aware also that transparency is barely applicable when here sign forms are used: STS-1/STM-0, STS-three/STM-1, STS-12/STM-four, STS-forty eight/STM-16, STS-192/STM-sixty four, and STS-768/STM-256. at the least one transparency classification ought to be targeted when this sort of sign class is requested. Transparency shows precisely which fields in these overheads have to be delivered unmodified at the other end of the LSP. An ingress Label Switching Router (LSR) asking for transparency will move these overhead fields that should be dropped at the egress LSR without any trade. From the ingress and egress LSRs aspect of views, these fields have to be seen as being unmodified. Transparency is applied now not on the interfaces with the initiating and terminating LSRs however best between intermediate LSRs. The transparency field is used to request an LSP that supports the requested transparency class; it may possibly even be used to install the transparency method to be applied at each intermediate LSR. The distinctive transparency flags are as follows: Flag 1 (bit 1): area/Regenerator part layer Flag 2 (bit 2): Line/Multiplex part layer the place bit 1 is the low-order bit. other flags are reserved; they should be set to zero when despatched and left out when acquired. A flag is set to one to point out that the corresponding transparency is requested. Intermediate and egress nodes ought to investigate that the node itself and the interfaces on which the LSP can be based can help the requested transparency. If the requested flags cannot be supported, the receiver node need to generate a PathErr/NOTIFICATION message (see Sections 2.2 and a couple of.three, respectively). area/Regenerator part layer transparency capability that the total frames must be delivered unmodified. this implies that pointers cannot be adjusted. When part/Regenerator section layer transparency is used all different flags need to be unnoticed. Mannie & Papadimitriou standards tune [Page 8] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 Line/Multiplex section layer transparency ability that the LOH/MSOH must be delivered unmodified. this suggests that pointers can not be adjusted. o) Profile (P): 32 bits This container is supposed to indicate selected capabilities that must be supported for the LSP; as an instance, monitoring capabilities. No typical profile is presently described, and this box should be set to zero when transmitted and ignored when got. in the future, TLV-primarily based extensions can be created. 2.2. RSVP-TE particulars For RSVP-TE, the SONET/SDH traffic parameters are carried within the SONET/SDH SENDER_TSPEC and FLOWSPEC objects. The same format is used each for the SENDER_TSPEC object and for FLOWSPEC objects. The content of the objects is described above, in part 2.1. The objects have right here classification and sort for SONET ANSI T1.105 and SDH ITU-T G.707: SONET/SDH SENDER_TSPEC object: type = 12, C-classification = four SONET/SDH FLOWSPEC object: category = 9, C-category = 4 There is no Adspec linked to the SONET/SDH SENDER_TSPEC. either the Adspec is ignored, or an int-serv Adspec with the Default time-honored Characterization Parameters and guaranteed provider fragment is used; see [RFC2210]. For a selected sender in a session, the contents of the FLOWSPEC object obtained in a Resv message should still be similar to the contents of the SENDER_TSPEC object acquired in the corresponding route message. If the objects don't match, a ResvErr message with a "site visitors handle Error/dangerous Flowspec value" error may still be generated. Intermediate and egress nodes have to examine that the node itself and the interfaces on which the LSP might be centered can assist the requested sign classification, RCC, NCC, NVC and Multiplier (as described in part 2.1). If the requested price(s) can not be supported, the receiver node need to generate a PathErr message with a "traffic control Error/ carrier unsupported" indication (see [RFC 2205]). moreover, if the MT container is bought with a 0 value, the node must generate a PathErr message with a "traffic handle Error/unhealthy Tspec cost" indication (see [RFC 2205]). Mannie & Papadimitriou requisites track [Page 9] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 Intermediate nodes ought to additionally examine that the node itself and the interfaces on which the LSP can be centered can assist the requested Transparency (as described in part 2.1). If the requested cost(s) can't be supported, the receiver node must generate a PathErr message with a "traffic manage Error/carrier unsupported" indication (see [RFC 2205]). 2.three. CR-LDP details For CR-LDP, the SONET/SDH site visitors parameters are carried within the SONET/SDH traffic Parameters TLV. The content of the TLV is described above, in section 2.1. The header of the TLV has right here structure: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 four 5 6 7 eight 9 0 1 2 three four 5 6 7 eight 9 0 1 2 three 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |U|F| category | length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ The class container for the SONET/SDH site visitors Parameters TLV is 0x0838. Intermediate and egress nodes should verify that the node itself and the interfaces on which the LSP might be centered can support the requested sign category, RCC, NCC, NVC, and Multiplier (as described in area 2.1). If the requested value(s) cannot be supported, the receiver node ought to generate a NOTIFICATION message with a "aid Unavailable" repute code (see [RFC 3212]). furthermore, if the MT box is obtained with a 0 cost, the node ought to generate a NOTIFICATION message with a "aid Unavailable" fame code (see [RFC 3212]). Intermediate nodes need to additionally check that the node itself and the interfaces on which the LSP could be established can guide the requested Transparency (as described in section 2.1). If the requested value(s) can't be supported, the receiver node ought to generate a NOTIFICATION message with a "useful resource Unavailable" repute code (see [RFC 3212]). Mannie & Papadimitriou necessities song [Page 10] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 three. SONET and SDH Labels SONET and SDH every outline a multiplexing structure. both buildings are timber whose roots are, respectively, an STS-N or an STM-N and whose leaves are the indicators that will also be transported by means of the time- slots and switched between time-slots within an ingress port and time-slots inside an egress port; i.e., a VTx SPE, an STS-x SPE, or a VC-x. A SONET/SDH label will identify the genuine place (i.e., first time-slot) of a particular VTx SPE, STS-x SPE, or VC-x signal in a multiplexing constitution. SONET and SDH labels are carried in the Generalized Label per [RFC3473] and [RFC3472]. notice that with the aid of time-slots we imply the time-slots as they appear logically and sequentially in the multiplex, no longer as they seem after any feasible interleaving. These multiplexing buildings could be used as naming trees to create wonderful multiplex entry names or labels. The same structure of label is used for SONET and SDH. As defined in [RFC3471], a label does not identify the "classification" to which the label belongs. here is implicitly determined through the hyperlink on which the label is used. In case of sign concatenation or multiplication, a listing of labels can seem within the Label box of a Generalized Label. In case of contiguous concatenation, just one label seems within the Label field. This entertaining label is encoded as a single 32-bit label price (as described during this part) of the Generalized Label object (category-Num = sixteen, C-type = 2)/TLV (0x0825). This label identifies the lowest time-slot occupied by using the contiguously concatenated sign. through lowest time-slot, we mean the one having the lowest label (cost) when compared as an integer value; i.e., the time-slot occupied via the primary component signal of the concatenated signal encountered descending the tree. In case of digital concatenation, the explicit ordered checklist of all labels within the concatenation is given. This ordered listing of labels is encoded as a sequence of 32-bit label values (as described in this area) of the Generalized Label object (classification-Num = sixteen, C-class = 2)/TLV (0x0825). every label indicates the primary time-slot occupied by means of a component of the basically concatenated signal. The order of the labels should replicate the order of the payloads to concatenate (not the physical order of time-slots). The above illustration limits digital concatenation to stay inside a single (part) hyperlink; it imposes, as such, a limit compared to the ANSI [T1.105]/ ITU-T [G.707] suggestions. The normal definition for digital concatenation allows for each virtual concatenation add-ons to trip over different paths. within GMPLS, digital concatenation components Mannie & Papadimitriou standards music [Page 11] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH control August 2006 should go back and forth over the identical (part) hyperlink if they are a part of the identical LSP. here's because of the way that labels are certain to a (element) link. notice, however, that the routing of add-ons on different paths is indeed comparable to setting up distinct LSPs, every one having its personal route. a couple of LSPs will also be initiated and terminated between the equal nodes, and their corresponding accessories can then be linked collectively (i.e., nearly concatenated). In case of multiplication (i.e., using the multiplier transform), the specific ordered checklist of all labels that take part in the closing sign is given. This ordered record of labels is encoded as a sequence of 32-bit label values (as described during this section) of the Generalized Label object (category-Num = sixteen, C-type = 2)/TLV (0x0825). In case of multiplication of basically concatenated alerts, the explicit ordered listing of the set of labels that take half within the ultimate signal is given. the primary set of labels shows the time- slots occupied by the primary basically concatenated signal, the 2d set of labels shows the time-slots occupied by way of the second practically concatenated signal, and the like. The above illustration limits multiplication to continue to be inside a single (element) link. The structure of the label for SONET and/or SDH TDM-LSR hyperlink is 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 three 4 5 6 7 eight 9 0 1 2 three 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 four 5 6 7 eight 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | S | U | ok | L | M | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ this is an extension of the numbering scheme defined in [G.707], Sections 7.three.7 via 7.three.13; i.e., the (k, L, M) numbering. be aware that the greater order numbering scheme defined in [G.707], Sections 7.3.1 through 7.three.6, isn't used right here. every letter indicates a likely department quantity beginning on the mum or dad node within the multiplex constitution. Branches are considered as being numbered in expanding order, starting from the suitable of the multiplexing constitution. The numbering starts at 1; zero is used to point out a non-gigantic or ignored box. When a box isn't huge or omitted in a particular context, it need to be set to zero when transmitted and left out when bought. When a hierarchy of SONET/SDH LSPs is used, a stronger-order LSP with a given bandwidth can be used to elevate lessen-order LSPs. be aware that a stronger-order LSP is established via a SONET/SDH greater-order course layer network, and a lower-order LSP via a SONET/SDH lessen- order path layer community (see additionally ITU-T G.803, part 3, for the Mannie & Papadimitriou requirements tune [Page 12] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 corresponding definitions). during this context, the bigger-order SONET/SDH LSP behaves as a "virtual hyperlink" with a given bandwidth (e.g., VC-3); it may also be used as a Forwarding Adjacency. A lessen-order SONET/SDH LSP can be dependent through that higher- order LSP. due to the fact that a label is local to a (virtual) link, the highest a part of that label (i.e., the S, U, and okay fields) is non-colossal and is set to zero; i.e., the label is "0,0,0,L,M". in a similar way, if the structure of the lower-order LSP is unknown or not critical, the lowest a part of that label (i.e., the L and M fields) is non- big and is set to zero; i.e., the label is "S,U,okay,0,0". for example, a VC-3 LSP may also be used to elevate lessen-order LSPs. In that case, the labels allocated between the two ends of the VC-three LSP for the decrease-order LSPs may have S, U, and okay set to zero (i.e., non-significant) whereas L and M might be used to point out the sign allocated in that VC-three. In case of tunneling, reminiscent of VC-4 containing VC-3 containing VC-12/VC-eleven, the place the SUKLM structure is not adequate to characterize the whole sign structure, a hierarchical method must be used; i.e., per layer network signaling. The feasible values of S, U, k, L, and M are described as follows: 1. S=1->N is the index of a particular STS-three/AUG-1 inner an STS-N/STM-N multiplex. S is barely big for SONET STS-N (N>1) and SDH STM-N (N>0). S have to be 0 and omitted for STS-1 and STM-0. 2. U=1->three is the index of a specific STS-1_SPE/VC-3 within an STS-3/AUG-1. U is only massive for SONET STS-N (N>1) and SDH STM-N (N>0). U ought to be 0 and left out for STS-1 and STM-0. three. ok=1->three is the index of a particular TUG-3 inside a VC-four. k is most effective significant for an SDH VC-4 structured in TUG-3s. ok have to be 0 and overlooked in all different cases. four. L=1->7 is the index of a specific VT_Group/TUG-2 within an STS-1_SPE/TUG-3 or VC-three. L ought to be 0 and disregarded in all different circumstances. 5. M is the index of a specific VT1.5_SPE/VC-eleven, VT2_SPE/VC-12, or VT3_SPE within a VT_Group/TUG-2. M=1->2 suggests a selected VT3 SPE inner the corresponding VT community; these values have to now not be used for SDH, in view that there is no equivalent of VT3 with SDH. M=three->5 shows a selected VT2_SPE/VC-12 inner the corresponding VT_Group/TUG-2. M=6->9 suggests a specific VT1.5_SPE/VC-11 inside the corresponding VT_Group/TUG-2. Mannie & Papadimitriou requisites music [Page 13] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 word that a label all the time has to be interpreted according the SONET/SDH traffic parameters; i.e., a label by itself doesn't allow figuring out which sign is being requested (a label is context delicate). The label format described during this area, referred to as SUKLM, should be used for any SONET/SDH signal requests that aren't clear; i.e., when all Transparency (T) bits described in section 2.1 are set to zero. Any clear STS-1/STM-0/STS-3*N/STM-N (N=1, four, 16, sixty four, 256) sign request need to use a label layout as defined in [RFC3471]. The S encoding is summarized in the following desk: S SDH SONET ------------------------------------------------ 0 different other 1 1st AUG-1 1st STS-3 2 2nd AUG-1 2nd STS-3 3 3rd AUG-1 third STS-3 4 4rd AUG-1 4rd STS-three : : : N Nth AUG-1 Nth STS-3 The U encoding is summarized in right here table: U SDH AUG-1 SONET STS-three ------------------------------------------------- 0 other other 1 1st VC-3 1st STS-1 SPE 2 2nd VC-three 2nd STS-1 SPE 3 3rd VC-3 3rd STS-1 SPE The k encoding is summarized in the following desk: ok SDH VC-four --------------- 0 other 1 1st TUG-three 2 2nd TUG-3 three third TUG-three Mannie & Papadimitriou requisites music [Page 14] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 The L encoding is summarized in right here table: L SDH TUG-3 SDH VC-3 SONET STS-1 SPE ------------------------------------------------- 0 other other different 1 1st TUG-2 1st TUG-2 1st VTG 2 2nd TUG-2 2nd TUG-2 2nd VTG three third TUG-2 third TUG-2 3rd VTG 4 4th TUG-2 4th TUG-2 4th VTG 5 5th TUG-2 5th TUG-2 fifth VTG 6 sixth TUG-2 6th TUG-2 6th VTG 7 seventh TUG-2 seventh TUG-2 7th VTG The M encoding is summarized in the following desk: M SDH TUG-2 SONET VTG ------------------------------------------------- 0 different other 1 - 1st VT3 SPE 2 - 2nd VT3 SPE 3 1st VC-12 1st VT2 SPE 4 2nd VC-12 2nd VT2 SPE 5 3rd VC-12 3rd VT2 SPE 6 1st VC-eleven 1st VT1.5 SPE 7 2nd VC-eleven 2nd VT1.5 SPE 8 third VC-11 third VT1.5 SPE 9 4th VC-11 4th VT1.5 SPE Examples of Labels illustration 1: the label for the STS-3c_SPE/VC-four in the Sth STS-three/AUG-1 is: S>0, U=0, k=0, L=0, M=0. instance 2: the label for the VC-3 in the Kth-1 TUG-three inside the VC-four in the Sth AUG-1 is: S>0, U=0, k>0, L=0, M=0. example three: the label for the Uth-1 STS-1_SPE/VC-3 within the Sth STS-three/AUG-1 is: S>0, U>0, ok=0, L=0, M=0. instance 4: the label for the VT6/VC-2 in the Lth-1 VT neighborhood/TUG-2 within the Uth-1 STS-1_SPE/VC-three in the Sth STS-three/AUG-1 is: S>0, U>0, ok=0, L>0, M=0. instance 5: the label for the 3rd VT1.5_SPE/VC-eleven within the Lth-1 VT neighborhood/TUG-2 within the Uth-1 STS-1_SPE/VC-three inside the Sth STS-3/AUG-1 is: S>0, U>0, k=0, L>0, M=eight. Mannie & Papadimitriou standards music [Page 15] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 illustration 6: the label for the STS-12c SPE/VC-four-4c which uses the ninth STS-3/AUG-1 as its first timeslot is: S=9, U=0, ok=0, L=0, M=0. In case of contiguous concatenation, the label that is used is the lowest label (value) of the contiguously concatenated sign, as explained before. The larger part of the label suggests where the sign starts, and the lowest half is not gigantic. In case of STM-0/STS-1, the values of S, U, and k have to be equal to zero, in response to the container coding suggestions. as an instance, when a VC-three in an STM-0 is requested, the label is S=0, U=0, okay=0, L=0, M=0. When a VC-11 in a VC-three in an STM-0 is requested, the label is S=0, U=0, ok=0, L>0, M=6..9. notice: when a section/RS or Line/MS transparent STS-1/STM-0/ STS-3*N/STM-N (N=1, 4, sixteen, sixty four, 256) sign is requested, the SUKLM label layout and encoding isn't relevant, and the label encoding have to observe the guidelines described in [RFC3471], section 3.2. 4. Acknowledgements helpful comments and input were bought from the CCAMP mailing checklist, the place incredible discussions took location. The authors would want to thank Richard Rabbat for his useful enter, which lead to this revision. 5. safety considerations This document introduces no new safety concerns to both [RFC3473] or [RFC3472]. GMPLS protection is described in part eleven of [RFC3471] and refers to [RFC 3209] for RSVP-TE and to [RFC 3212] for CR-LDP. 6. IANA issues Three values described with the aid of IANA for RFC3946 now observe to this doc. Two RSVP C-types in registry: http://www.iana.org/assignments/rsvp-parameters - A SONET/SDH SENDER_TSPEC object: category = 12, C-class = 4 (see area 2.2). - A SONET/SDH FLOWSPEC object: classification = 9, C-type = 4 (see part 2.2). Mannie & Papadimitriou necessities track [Page 16] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH control August 2006 One LDP TLV type in registry: http://www.iana.org/assignments/ldp-namespaces - a sort container for the SONET/SDH site visitors Parameters TLV (see area 2.3). Contributors Contributors are listed in alphabetical order: Stefan Ansorge (Alcatel) Lorenzstrasse 10 70435 Stuttgart, Germany e-mail: stefan.ansorge@alcatel.de Peter Ashwood-Smith (Nortel) PO. box 3511 Station C, Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7, Canada e mail:petera@nortelnetworks.com Ayan Banerjee (Calient) 5853 Rue Ferrari San Jose, CA 95138, u . s . email: abanerjee@calient.web Lou Berger (Movaz) 7926 Jones branch drive McLean, VA 22102, u . s . e-mail: lberger@movaz.com Greg Bernstein (Ciena) 10480 Ridgeview court docket Cupertino, CA 94014, u . s . e mail: greg@ciena.com Angela Chiu (Celion) One Sheila pressure, Suite 2 Tinton Falls, NJ 07724-2658 e-mail: angela.chiu@celion.com John Drake (Calient) 5853 Rue Ferrari San Jose, CA 95138, usa e-mail: jdrake@calient.internet Mannie & Papadimitriou specifications music [Page 17] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 Yanhe Fan (Axiowave) 100 Nickerson road Marlborough, MA 01752, us of a email: yfan@axiowave.com Michele Fontana (Alcatel) by way of Trento 30, I-20059 Vimercate, Italy e mail: michele.fontana@alcatel.it Gert Grammel (Alcatel) Lorenzstrasse, 10 70435 Stuttgart, Germany email: gert.grammel@alcatel.de Juergen Heiles (Siemens) Hofmannstr. fifty one D-81379 Munich, Germany e mail: juergen.heiles@siemens.com Suresh Katukam (Cisco) 1450 N. McDowell Blvd, Petaluma, CA 94954-6515, u . s . a . e mail: suresh.katukam@cisco.com Kireeti Kompella (Juniper) 1194 N. Mathilda Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94089, us of a e mail: kireeti@juniper.web Jonathan P. Lang (Calient) 25 Castilian Goleta, CA 93117, country email: jplang@calient.net Fong Liaw (Solas research) e-mail: fongliaw@yahoo.com Zhi-Wei Lin (Lucent) one hundred and one Crawfords nook Rd Holmdel, NJ 07733-3030, united states electronic mail: zwlin@lucent.com Ben Mack-Crane (Tellabs) e mail: ben.mack-crane@tellabs.com Mannie & Papadimitriou standards tune [Page 18] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH handle August 2006 Dimitrios Pendarakis (Tellium) 2 Crescent location, P.O. container 901 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901, usa email: dpendarakis@tellium.com Mike Raftelis (White Rock) 18111 Preston highway Dallas, TX 75252, u . s . Bala Rajagopalan (Tellium) 2 Crescent region, P.O. box 901 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901, usa electronic mail: braja@tellium.com Yakov Rekhter (Juniper) 1194 N. Mathilda Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94089, us of a e mail: yakov@juniper.net Debanjan Saha (Tellium) 2 Crescent region, P.O. box 901 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901, u . s . a . e-mail: dsaha@tellium.com Vishal Sharma (Metanoia) 335 Elan Village Lane San Jose, CA 95134, usa e mail: vsharma87@yahoo.com George Swallow (Cisco) 250 Apollo force Chelmsford, MA 01824, u . s . a . email: swallow@cisco.com Z. Bo Tang (Tellium) 2 Crescent vicinity, P.O. box 901 Oceanport, NJ 07757-0901, u . s . electronic mail: btang@tellium.com Eve Varma (Lucent) a hundred and one Crawfords corner Rd Holmdel, NJ 07733-3030, u . s . e mail: evarma@lucent.com Yangguang Xu (Lucent) 21-2A41, 1600 Osgood highway North Andover, MA 01845, united states of america electronic mail: xuyg@lucent.com Mannie & Papadimitriou specifications song [Page 19] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 Appendix 1. signal class Values Extension for VC-three This appendix defines the following not obligatory further signal type cost for the sign class container of area 2.1: cost classification ----- --------------------- 20 "VC-three by the use of AU-3 at the end" in keeping with the ITU-T [G.707] suggestion, a VC-three in the TU- three/TUG-three/VC-4/AU-4 branch of the SDH multiplex can't be structured in TUG-2s; youngsters, a VC-three within the AU-3 branch will also be. additionally, a VC-three may well be switched between both branches, if required. A VC-3 circuit may well be terminated on an ingress interface of an LSR (e.g., forming a VC-three forwarding adjacency). This LSR could then wish to demultiplex this VC-3 and change internal low-order LSPs. For implementation factors, this can be handiest feasible if the LSR receives the VC-3 within the AU-3 branch. for instance, for an LSR now not in a position to change internally from a TU-3 department to an AU-3 department on its incoming interface before demultiplexing after which switching the content with its switch textile. in that case, it is valuable to indicate that the VC-3 LSP should be terminated on the end within the AU-3 branch in its place of the TU-three department. here is done through the use of the "VC-three by way of AU-three at the end" sign category. This information can be used, as an instance, by using the penultimate LSR to swap an incoming VC-3 received in any department to the AU-3 branch on the outgoing interface to the destination LSR. The "VC-three by means of AU-three at the conclusion" sign classification does not indicate that the VC-3 need to be switched by the use of the AU-3 department at another locations within the network. The VC-3 signal type just suggests that a VC-3 in any branch is relevant. Annex 1. Examples This annex defines examples of SONET and SDH signal coding. The goal is to support the reader to take note how the site visitors parameter coding works and not to deliver examples of commonplace SONET or SDH alerts. As stated above, signal kinds are fundamental indicators to which successive concatenation, multiplication, and transparency transforms will also be applied to acquire last alerts. Mannie & Papadimitriou standards track [Page 20] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH control August 2006 1. A VC-4 signal is formed with the aid of the application of RCC with price 0, NCC with value 0, NVC with cost 0, MT with value 1, and T with price 0 to a VC-four elementary signal. 2. A VC-four-7v sign is fashioned by using the software of RCC with cost 0, NCC with price 0, NVC with price 7 (virtual concatenation of 7 add-ons), MT with price 1, and T with value 0 to a VC-4 basic signal. 3. A VC-four-16c sign is fashioned by using the utility of RCC with price 1 (standard contiguous concatenation), NCC with cost 16, NVC with price 0, MT with price 1, and T with cost 0 to a VC-4 fundamental signal. 4. An STM-sixteen sign with Multiplex section layer transparency is shaped through the application of RCC with price 0, NCC with price 0, NVC with price 0, MT with cost 1, and T with flag 2 to an STM-16 basic signal. 5. An STM-4 signal with Multiplex section layer transparency is shaped with the aid of the utility of RCC with value 0, NCC with cost 0, NVC with price 0, MT with price 1, and T with flag 2 applied to an STM-4 basic signal. 6. An STM-256 sign with Multiplex part layer transparency is formed by the application of RCC with cost 0, NCC with cost 0, NVC with cost 0, MT with value 1, and T with flag 2 applied to an STM-256 basic sign. 7. An STS-1 SPE sign is fashioned by way of the software of RCC with value 0, NCC with cost 0, NVC with price 0, MT with cost 1, and T with cost 0 to an STS-1 SPE elementary signal. eight. An STS-3c SPE sign is shaped through the utility of RCC with cost 1 (ordinary contiguous concatenation), NCC with price 1, NVC with value 0, MT with price 1, and T with value 0 to an STS-3c SPE fundamental signal. 9. An STS-48c SPE sign is formed by way of the software of RCC with cost 1 (general contiguous concatenation), NCC with price 16, NVC with value 0, MT with value 1, and T with cost 0 to an STS-3c SPE fundamental signal. 10. An STS-1-3v SPE signal is shaped by the application of RCC with price 0, NVC with price 3 (virtual concatenation of 3 accessories), MT with cost 1, and T with price 0 to an STS-1 SPE fundamental sign. Mannie & Papadimitriou requisites song [Page 21] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 11. An STS-3c-9v SPE sign is formed by way of the application of RCC with cost 1, NCC with value 1, NVC with value 9 (virtual concatenation of 9 STS-3c), MT with value 1, and T with cost 0 to an STS-3c SPE basic sign. 12. An STS-12 signal with area layer (full) transparency is formed by using the software of RCC with price 0, NCC with price 0, NVC with value 0, MT with cost 1, and T with flag 1 to an STS-12 basic sign. 13. A 3 x STS-768c SPE sign is fashioned by means of the utility of RCC with price 1, NCC with value 256, NVC with price 0, MT with price three, and T with value 0 to an STS-3c SPE fundamental signal. 14. A 5 x VC-4-13v composed signal is shaped by way of the utility of RCC with value 0, NVC with cost 13, MT with cost 5, and T with price 0 to a VC-4 fundamental signal. The encoding of these examples is summarized in right here table: sign ST RCC NCC NVC MT T -------------------------------------------------------- VC-four 6 0 0 0 1 0 VC-4-7v 6 0 0 7 1 0 VC-four-16c 6 1 sixteen 0 1 0 STM-16 MS clear 10 0 0 0 1 2 STM-4 MS transparent 9 0 0 0 1 2 STM-256 MS clear 12 0 0 0 1 2 STS-1 SPE 5 0 0 0 1 0 STS-3c SPE 6 1 1 0 1 0 STS-48c SPE 6 1 16 0 1 0 STS-1-3v SPE 5 0 0 three 1 0 STS-3c-9v SPE 6 1 1 9 1 0 STS-12 part clear 9 0 0 0 1 1 3 x STS-768c SPE 6 1 256 0 3 0 5 x VC-4-13v 6 0 0 13 5 0 Mannie & Papadimitriou standards track [Page 22] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 Normative References [G.707] ITU-T advice G.707, "community Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy", October 2000. [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "keywords to be used in RFCs to point out Requirement stages", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC 2205] Braden, R., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S. Jamin, "aid ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- version 1 useful Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997. [RFC2210] Wroclawski, J., "the use of RSVP with IETF built-in services", RFC2210, September 1997. [RFC 3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V., and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001. [RFC 3212] Jamoussi, B., Andersson, L., Callon, R., Dantu, R., Wu, L., Doolan, P., Worster, T., Feldman, N., Fredette, A., Girish, M., gray, E., Heinanen, J., Kilty, T., and A. Malis, "Constraint-primarily based LSP Setup using LDP", RFC 3212, January 2002. [RFC3471] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling functional Description", RFC3471, January 2003. [RFC3472] Ashwood-Smith, P. and L. Berger, "Generalized Multi- Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Constraint- primarily based Routed Label Distribution Protocol (CR-LDP) Extensions", RFC3472, January 2003. [RFC3473] Berger, L., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling useful resource ReserVation Protocol-traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC3473, January 2003. [RFC3945] Mannie, E., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) architecture", RFC3945, October 2004. [T1.105] "Synchronous Optical network (SONET): primary Description together with Multiplex structure, charges, and codecs", ANSI T1.one zero five, October 2000. Mannie & Papadimitriou specifications tune [Page 23] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH control August 2006 Authors' Addresses Eric Mannie Perceval Rue Tenbosch, 9 1000 Brussels Belgium cellphone: +32-2-6409194 e mail: eric.mannie@perceval.net Dimitri Papadimitriou Alcatel Copernicuslaan 50 B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium mobilephone: +32 3 240-8491 e-mail: dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel.be Mannie & Papadimitriou requirements music [Page 24] RFC 4606 GMPLS Extensions for SONET & SDH manage August 2006 Full Copyright observation Copyright (C) The web Society (2006). This document is area to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP seventy eight, and except as set forth therein, the authors preserve all their rights. This doc and the information contained herein are provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE organization HE/SHE REPRESENTS OR IS subsidized via (IF ANY), THE cyber web SOCIETY AND THE information superhighway ENGINEERING assignment drive DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, express OR IMPLIED, including but not restrained TO ANY guarantee THAT using THE suggestions HEREIN WILL now not INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR health FOR a selected purpose. intellectual Property The IETF takes no place concerning the validity or scope of any intellectual Property Rights or different rights that should be would becould very well be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the expertise described in this document or the extent to which any license beneath such rights may or might now not be obtainable; nor does it symbolize that it has made any impartial effort to establish the sort of rights. suggestions on the processes with admire to rights in RFC documents may also be present in BCP 78 and BCP 79. Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made purchasable, or the outcomes of an effort made to achieve a popular license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights through implementers or clients of this specification may also be obtained from the IETF online IPR repository at http://www.ietf.org/ipr. The IETF invitations any involved birthday party to convey to its consideration any copyrights, patents or patent functions, or different proprietary rights that may also cowl know-how that may well be required to put in force this typical. Please handle the suggestions to the IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org. Acknowledgement Funding for the RFC Editor feature is equipped by way of the IETF Administrative guide pastime (IASA). Mannie & Papadimitriou necessities song [Page 25]

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