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SQLite Extraction of Oracle Tables tools, strategies and Pitfalls

Introduction

The SQLite database is a wildly successful and ubiquitous software equipment it truly is in the main unknown to the larger IT group. Designed and coded by way of Dr. Richard Hipp, the third primary revision of SQLite serves many users in market segments with essential requirements for software great, which SQLite has met with compliance to the DO-178B avionics regular. apart from a robust presence in aerospace and automobile, most essential operating gadget carriers (together with Oracle, Microsoft, Apple, Google, and RedHat) encompass SQLite as a core OS component.

There are a couple of eccentricities that may shuttle up users from different RDBMS environments. SQLite is referred to as a “flexibly-typed” database, in contrast to Oracle which rigidly enforces columnar datatypes; personality values will also be inserted into SQLite columns that are declared integer devoid of error (besides the fact that children assess constraints can strengthen SQLite category rigidity, if desired). whereas many concurrent approaches are allowed to read from a SQLite database, only 1 method is allowed write privilege at any time (functions requiring concurrent writers may still tread carefully with SQLite). There is not any network interface, and all connections are made via a filesystem; SQLite does not implement a client-server model. There is no “aspect in time restoration,” and backup operations are truly an Oracle 7-trend ALTER DATAFILE begin BACKUP that makes a transaction-consistent replica of the whole database. provide and REVOKE aren't applied in SQLite, which makes use of filesystem permissions for all access control. There aren't any historical past strategies, and newly-connecting purchasers may additionally locate themselves delayed and chargeable for transaction recuperation, information assortment, or other administrative capabilities which are quietly carried out in the heritage during this “zero-administration database.” Some background and architecture of SQLite can be found in audio and video information of Dr. Hipp's discussions.

despite these eccentricities, SQLite is likely a advanced layout for records exchange as opposed to CSV, XML, and even JSON, as indexes can also be protected, enabling recipients to function high-pace queries in SQL92 with none preprocessing, licensing, or activation. SQLite’s conservative coding trend and commentary is supposed to advantage “future programmers who don't seem to be yet born,” and the on-disk database format has further been defined as a protracted-term storage commonplace by way of the Library of the U.S. Congress.

Three methods could be presented to reproduction Oracle database tables into SQLite: CSV trade, ODBC database links, and Hypertext Preprocessor scripting. The CSV change may also be finished with latest tooling and a POSIX shell, with none administrative intervention past an available account with goal statistics. The unixODBC method requires an administrator to bring together, installation and configure SQLite ODBC data sources, then attach to them with Oracle's dg4odbc, the Oracle server ODBC interface. The Hypertext Preprocessor scripting approach makes it possible for LOB forms to be moved, but a compiler and development atmosphere can be necessary to prepare it.

Extraction of Oracle database content into SQLite is a little complicated, because the simple facts forms don't quite align. here i will latest equipment to coerce alignment, and extract with suitable transformation.

It is believed that the consumer has access to an Oracle database and Oracle's sqlplus command-line device, and abilities of their use (SQLcl can also be used).

SQLite safety

SQLite is concentrated on developers who assemble the database supply code into their own purposes, and the equipment-level tools seem to suffer from some forget. The command-line utility for administering databases, sqlite3, is offered for Linux within the equipment assortment. The newest releases latest compelling new facets, but there are ample issues with the compiled binary that i advise against its use.

  • The utility is compiled only for 32-bit Linux x86 environments and depends on shared libraries, which gifts two issues:
  • Many contemporary AMD64/x86_64 Linux distributions don't include 32-bit libc or other dependent libraries through default, requiring administrative access to deploy.
  • 32-bit Linux allows for a software to use a maximum of three gigabytes of reminiscence, which may unreasonably prevent kinds and caching when far more physical RAM is obtainable that may well be utilized in sixty four-bit mode.
  • The sqlite3 allotted within the tools assortment does not have any compiler defense elements enabled, as mentioned by means of the hardening-verify utility that can be found in EPEL.
  • These are the hardening examine outcomes for the Linux tools utility disbursed by SQLite:

    $ hardening-check sqlite3; file sqlite3 sqlite3: position unbiased Executable: no, commonplace executable! Stack covered: no, now not discovered! toughen supply features: no, simplest unprotected capabilities found! examine-handiest relocations: no, no longer found! immediate binding: no, no longer found! sqlite3: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, edition 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux four.3.0, stripped

    I suggest that the supply down load (currently sqlite-autoconf-3360000.tar.gz) be acquired, and ready on modern working methods with current compiler defense controls:

    CFLAGS='-O3 -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fstack-protector-amazing -fpic -pie' \ LDFLAGS='-Wl,-z,relro,-z,now -Wl,-z,now' ./configure

    Assuming this is completed, all the compiler protection controls might be enabled:

    $ hardening-assess sqlite3; file sqlite3 sqlite3: position impartial Executable: sure Stack blanketed: sure strengthen source functions: yes (some blanketed functions found) read-most effective relocations: yes immediate binding: certainsqlite3: ELF sixty four-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.32, BuildID[sha1]=34ffa395a5f985b16f6ac2e6c7c3ad5126e05bed, no longer stripped

    SQLite is infrastructure, and even though we hope it to be invulnerable, it's going to adhere to contemporary compiler protection. Any compiler that may avail itself of these options, should.

    DDL

    SQLite allows here fundamental facts affinities to be defined for the columns of a desk. The rows that compose the columns will also be NULL or any of these varieties excepting NUMERIC:

  • text - textual content string, kept the use of the database encoding (UTF-8, UTF-16BE or UTF-16LE).
  • BLOB - blob of records, kept exactly because it turned into input.
  • NUMERIC - standard quantity, makes an attempt to devolve to integer or true.
  • INTEGER - signed, kept in 1, 2, 3, four, 6, or 8 bytes reckoning on the magnitude of the price.
  • true - floating element cost, saved as an 8-byte IEEE-754 format.
  • These kinds don't seem to be an ideal healthy for Oracle.

    The Oracle number category is used to hang each integers and precise numbers, based upon using the “statistics scale.” Oracle's CHAR and VARCHAR2 map to the textual content category. The DATE category isn't without delay supported in SQLite, and we treat it as an INTEGER for now.

    The SQLITE numeric affinity does not truly exist, upon examination of the source code. best the first few characters of a column datatype are checked; whether it is not identified, it's assigned the numeric type. To display:

    $ sqlite3 SQLite version 3.36.0 2021-06-18 18:36:39 Enter ".support" for usage hints. connected to a transient in-reminiscence database. Use ".open FILENAME" to reopen on a persistent database. sqlite> CREATE table foo(bar razzamataz,ch text,fl actual,whl int,mess blob); sqlite> .dump foo PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF; begin TRANSACTION; CREATE table foo(bar razzamataz,ch textual content,fl precise,whl int,mess blob); COMMIT; sqlite> create table bar as choose * from foo where 1=0; sqlite> .dump bar PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF; start TRANSACTION; CREATE desk bar( bar NUM, ch text, fl actual, whl INT, mess ); COMMIT;

    The CREATE desk AS opt for (CTAS) operation above calls the C feature createTableStmt, which extracts column affinities. The unknown class “razzamataz” become silently assigned numeric, and the blob class changed into not noted fully. The NUM keyword within the bar desk is also now not diagnosed. here's the most direct components that I even have found in SQLite to determine a column's true data affinities.

    The actual SQLite column affinities which are described within the supply code are:

    ** Substring | Affinity ** -------------------------------- ** 'INT' | SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER ** 'CHAR' | SQLITE_AFF_TEXT ** 'CLOB' | SQLITE_AFF_TEXT ** 'textual content' | SQLITE_AFF_TEXT ** 'BLOB' | SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ** 'real' | SQLITE_AFF_REAL ** 'FLOA' | SQLITE_AFF_REAL ** 'DOUB' | SQLITE_AFF_REAL ** If not one of the substrings in the above desk are found, ** SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC is returned.

    Oracle's binary forms (lengthy, BLOB, raw, etc.) can best be moved with a more effective device, such as php, discussed later in this doc. every other unique Oracle types are left as an pastime for the reader.

    beneath is a desk DDL (records Definition Language) extractor script for Oracle sqlplus that may also be used to create suitable tables in SQLite:

    $ cat textract_ddl.squareset pages 50000 lin 32767 check off warding off remarks off newpage none variable personal varchar2(128); variable nam varchar2(128); execute :personal := upper('&1'); execute :nam := higher('&2'); opt for null, 'create desk ' || :nam || ' (' from twin; choose sep, substr(col,1,cl) col, dtype, num, case when lag(num) over (order by using num) = num - 1 then null else '*' end chk from ( opt for case when COLUMN_ID = 1 then null else ',' conclusion sep, COLUMN_NAME col, 'textual content --' dtype, COLUMN_ID num, (select max(length(COLUMN_NAME)) from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS where owner = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam) cl from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS where proprietor = :own and TABLE_NAME = :nam and DATA_TYPE IN ('CHAR', 'VARCHAR', 'VARCHAR2') --'CLOB', 'NCLOB' ... union all choose case when COLUMN_ID = 1 then null else ',' end sep, COLUMN_NAME col, case when data_scale = 0 then 'INT --' when data_scale <> 0 then 'actual --' else 'NUM --' end dtype, COLUMN_ID num, (choose max(size(COLUMN_NAME)) from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS the place proprietor = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam) cl from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS where proprietor = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam and DATA_TYPE = 'number' union all choose case when COLUMN_ID = 1 then null else ',' conclusion sep, COLUMN_NAME col, 'INT --date' dtype, COLUMN_ID num, (select max(size(COLUMN_NAME)) from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS the place proprietor = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam) cl from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS the place owner = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam and DATA_TYPE = 'DATE' order with the aid of num ) union all choose null, ');', null, null, null from twin;

    To exhibit a failure circumstance when the usage of this script, we are able to use it towards the ALL_VIEWS view that could continually be considered through any connected user. This view consists of a long column on the way to require a more effective customer, similar to Hypertext Preprocessor.

    trying to run the script in either sqlplus or SQLcl outcomes in a flagged (and skipped) column:

    SQL> beginning textract_ddl sys all_views create desk all_views ( proprietor textual content -- 1 * , VIEW_NAME text -- 2 , TEXT_LENGTH NUM -- 3 , TYPE_TEXT_LENGTH NUM -- 5 * , TYPE_TEXT textual content -- 6 , OID_TEXT_LENGTH NUM -- 7 , OID_TEXT text -- 8 , VIEW_TYPE_OWNER textual content -- 9 , VIEW_TYPE textual content -- 10 , SUPERVIEW_NAME text -- 11 , EDITIONING_VIEW text -- 12 , READ_ONLY text -- 13 );

    The flagged columns above, numbers 1 and 5, point out a failure of the LAG window function on that row. Column 1 will all the time be flagged in any run, but another flags point out an unhandled datatype (during this case, a protracted in column four).

    A greater refined problem is the inability of a designated data_scale on integer values. A run in opposition t the ALL_OBJECTS view under reveals the problem:

    SQL> delivery textract_ddl sys all_objects create desk all_objects ( proprietor text -- 1 * , OBJECT_NAME textual content -- 2 , SUBOBJECT_NAME text -- three , OBJECT_ID NUM -- four , DATA_OBJECT_ID NUM -- 5 , OBJECT_TYPE textual content -- 6 , CREATED INT --date 7 , LAST_DDL_TIME INT --date 8 , TIMESTAMP text -- 9 , fame textual content -- 10 , brief text -- eleven , GENERATED text -- 12 , SECONDARY text -- 13 );

    the two NUM columns above in fact include integers, no longer floating factor numbers. This problem always looks when a column is defined as a number in Oracle with out a precision and scale. It may be positive to look a few examples of the a lot of Oracle numeric forms:

    SQL> create table testab(n1 number(5,three), n2 number (5,0), n3 number(*,0), n4 number(5), n5 quantity); table created. SQL> opt for column_name, data_type, data_precision, data_scale from user_tab_columns the place table_name='TESTAB'; COLUMN_NAME DATA_TYPE DATA_PRECISION DATA_SCALE ----------- --------- -------------- ---------- N1 quantity 5 three N2 quantity 5 0 N3 number 0 N4 quantity 5 0 N5 quantity SQL> insert into testab values(3.141592653589, 2.718281828, 1.414, 22/7, (1+sqrt(5))/2); 1 row created. SQL> opt for * from testab; N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- three.142 three 1 3 1.61803399 SQL> start textract_ddl fishecj testab create desk testab ( N1 real -- 1 * , N2 INT -- 2 , N3 INT -- 3 , N4 INT -- 4 , N5 NUM -- 5 );

    if you are sure that an Oracle number column contains integers, besides the fact that the size isn't distinct, exchange the column class manually.

    we will use the SQLite command line shell to create a database and add the ALL_OBJECTS desk as-is, including the NUM columns (note that the shell device does not return confirmation messages):

    $ sqlite3 orasys.db3 SQLite edition three.36.0 2021-06-18 18:36:39 Enter ".assist" for usage recommendations. sqlite> create table all_objects ( ...> proprietor text -- 1 * ...> , OBJECT_NAME text -- 2 ...> , SUBOBJECT_NAME textual content -- 3 ...> , OBJECT_ID NUM -- 4 ...> , DATA_OBJECT_ID NUM -- 5 ...> , OBJECT_TYPE text -- 6 ...> , CREATED INT --date 7 ...> , LAST_DDL_TIME INT --date eight ...> , TIMESTAMP text -- 9 ...> , fame text -- 10 ...> , temporary text -- 11 ...> , GENERATED textual content -- 12 ...> , SECONDARY textual content -- 13 ...> );

    for extremely colossal databases, it is advantageous to maximize the SQLite web page size. this could just a little in the reduction of storage overhead, and influence in a smaller file measurement for in any other case identical tables:

    sqlite> pragma page_size=65536; sqlite> vacuum;

    SQLite has additionally applied Write forward Logging which has a number of advantages, however also introduces barriers. If WAL mode is favored, enable it with the PRAGMA journal_mode=WAL; command.

    At this factor, we expect that our SQLite tables are now defined inside our database file, and are able to receive extracted statistics from Oracle.

    sqlite> .give up DML

    The most important difficulty during this part is the expression of dates and instances.

    As mentioned in previous discussion of statistics affinities, there are no native date or time formats in SQLite. Conversion capabilities exist for dates expressed in the following SQLite datatypes:

  • textual content as ISO8601 strings ("YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.SSS").
  • real as Julian day numbers, the number of days in view that noon in Greenwich on November 24, 4714 B.C. in keeping with the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
  • INTEGER as UNIX Epoch Time, the number of seconds given that 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.
  • whereas the true format above is probably going closest to Oracle's internal illustration, the UNIX epoch format is smaller and has conversion functions in Oracle which are more suitable described. we will examine the bounds of 32-bit UNIX epoch time with a small gawk script:

    $ cat strftime.gawk #!/bin/gawk -f start for(i=1;i<ARGC;i++) print strftime("%Y/%m/%d %H:%M:%S",ARGV[i])

    An older edition of gawk on a 32-bit platform allowed negative epoch timestamps, going lower back to December of 1901 (word these instances are expressed relative to the native time zone, in this case CST):

    $ ./strftime.gawk -2147483648 0 2147483647 1901/12/13 14:45:fifty two 1969/12/31 18:00:00 2038/01/18 21:14:07

    more moderen types of gawk do not permit bad epoch timestamps (oddly adequate, up to date Busybox awk does not share this challenge):

    $ ./strftime.gawk -2147483648 gawk: ./strftime.gawk:2: fatal: strftime: 2nd argument lower than 0 or too large for time_t

    The highest instances that will also be expressed via gawk and easily carried to Oracle on a 64-bit equipment appear to be:

    $ ./strftime.gawk 0 253402322399 67767976233554395 1969/12/31 18:00:00 9999/12/31 23:59:59 2147483647/12/31 23:59:fifty two

    This circumstance is by and large documented in the yr 2038 wiki.

    Oracle has a website with conversion services for translating the Oracle DATE type to UNIX epoch time. word that I actually have adjusted the min/max times, the decrease limit to effects above, and the higher restrict to the very ultimate 2nd of the year 9999, as here is safe in sixty four-bit UNIX epoch time. I existing a modified edition of this conversion characteristic under, that returns the min/max values on overflow as opposed to an error:

    CREATE OR replace function date_to_unixts(oracle_date IN DATE) RETURN number IS unix_epoch DATE := TO_DATE('19700101000000','YYYYMMDDHH24MISS'); max_date DATE := TO_DATE('99991231235959','YYYYMMDDHH24MISS'); min_date DATE := TO_DATE('19011213194552','YYYYMMDDHH24MISS'); unix_ts number(38,0); begin IF oracle_date > max_date THEN return(253402322399); ELSIF oracle_date < min_date THEN return(-2147483648); ELSE unix_ts := (oracle_date - unix_epoch) / (1/86400); end IF; RETURN (unix_ts); end; /

    as soon as this feature is in vicinity, we're able to build a select with a purpose to pull all the target columns from an Oracle desk, however certainly changing the date varieties to UNIX epoch structure. To try this, a opt for that explicitly invokes the converter on the DATE columns is required:

    $ cat textract_dml.sq.set pages 50000 lin 32767 assess off keeping off comments off newpage none variable personal varchar2(128); variable nam varchar2(128); execute :own := higher('&1'); execute :nam := upper('&2'); opt for null, 'choose' from dual; select sep, substr(col,1,cl) col, com, num from ( select decode(COLUMN_ID, 1, '', ',') sep, COLUMN_NAME col, '--' com, COLUMN_ID num, (select max(length(COLUMN_NAME))+sixteen from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS the place proprietor = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam) cl from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS the place proprietor = :own and TABLE_NAME = :nam and DATA_TYPE IN ('CHAR', 'VARCHAR2', 'quantity') union all select decode(COLUMN_ID, 1, '', ',') sep, 'date_to_unixts(' || COLUMN_NAME || ')' col, '--' com, COLUMN_ID num, (choose max(length(COLUMN_NAME))+sixteen from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS where proprietor = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam) cl from ALL_TAB_COLUMNS where owner = :personal and TABLE_NAME = :nam and DATA_TYPE = 'DATE' order by using num ); select null, 'from '||:own||'.'||:nam||';', null from twin;

    The query to export ALL_OBJECTS is beneath.

    SQL> spool all_objects-dump.sql SQL> delivery textract_dml sys all_objects opt for proprietor -- 1 , OBJECT_NAME -- 2 , SUBOBJECT_NAME -- three , OBJECT_ID -- four , DATA_OBJECT_ID -- 5 , OBJECT_TYPE -- 6 , date_to_unixts(CREATED) -- 7 , date_to_unixts(LAST_DDL_TIME) -- 8 , TIMESTAMP -- 9 , popularity -- 10 , temporary -- eleven , GENERATED -- 12 , SECONDARY -- 13 from sys.all_objects; SQL> spool off

    cautiously determine the all_objects-dump.sql file, and adjust it to be precisely the query for the SQLite export - no greater, and no much less.

    There could be factors to make alterations to the SQL produced by means of the script:

  • If a few tables are being exported to SQLite, it can be alluring to export all of them as they regarded at a specific aspect in accurate time, so the total set of tables is “read-consistent.” this is done with the AS OF clause to a select remark, and the person ought to have the “flashback on <desk>” privilege on every table with the intention to see a historic edition. Oracle's UNDO tablespace have to even have ample retention to reconstruct the recuperation photographs.
  • Any additional where clause content material to limit row visibility should still be brought at this stage (as adversarial to deleting rows from SQLite after transfer).
  • simplest versions of SQLite after three.25 have window functions. If the influence of a window feature is needed, and this capability is not attainable on the goal SQLite implementation, add it in Oracle earlier than transfer.
  • Any transformations of the statistics (as an example, substring features to prune char/varchar fields of inappropriate or unneeded records, numeric adjustments selected to the target, etc.) are superior carried out as part of the transfer, as adversarial to a put up-transfer cleanup.
  • Orchestration - CSV

    With a suitable SQLite database described, and a question that allows you to adequately filter the extracted facts, data switch is now possible.

    The strategy of this part will entail CSV export/import mode set each in Oracle sqlplus and the SQLite command line shell. This transfer will take place over a “named pipe” (fifo); the CSV file will not ever in fact exist on disk. This method is customary with Oracle's export/import equipment.

    A POSIX shell script to operate this switch, proven with Debian's dash, is presented below:

    $ cat textract.sh #!/bin/sh set -european # http://redsymbol.internet/articles/unofficial-bash-strict-mode/ #set -euo pipefail # http://redsymbol.web/articles/unofficial-bash-strict-mode/ IFS=$'\n\t' head='SET warding off remarks OFF MARKUP CSV ON' #TNS='/ as sysdba' #TNS="(description= \ # (address= \ # (protocol=tcp) \ # (host=db.myco.com) \ # (port=1521)) \ # (connect_data= \ # (sid=orcl)))" [ -z "$1:-" ] && echo " $(basename "$0" ".sh") - desk extractor -f vacation spot sqlite file -n source oracle database (TNS descriptor) -s Oracle extraction SQL file -t destination sqlite table -u Oracle username "; exit; while getopts f:n:p:s:t:u: arg do case "$arg" in f) fILE="$OPTARG" ;; n) TNS="$OPTARG" ;; # p) flow="$OPTARG" ;; s) sqlX="$OPTARG" ;; t) tABL="$OPTARG" ;; u) consumer="$OPTARG" ;; esac carried out getv () getVAR="$1"; getVAL="$(eval printf %s '"$'"$getVAR"':-"')" [ -z "$getVAL" ] && shift; echo "$@"; read getINP [ -z "$getINP" ] && return; eval "$getVAR"='"'$getINP'"'; ; return 1; getv sqlX "Oracle Extraction SQL filename: " && go outgetv TNS -n "source Oracle database: " && go outgetv fILE -n "vacation spot sqlite file: " && exitgetv tABL -n "destination sqlite desk: " && go outgetv consumer -n "person (default $LOGNAME): " && user="$LOGNAME" echo "Logging in / executing as $user." DIR="$(mktemp -d "/tmp/$(basename "$0" ".sh")XXXXX")" FIFO="$DIR/fifo.lst" GET="$DIR/get.sql" PUT="$DIR/put.sql" mkfifo "$FIFO" lure 'stty echo; rm -fv "$FIFO" "$GET" "$PUT"; rmdir -v "$DIR"' EXIT [ -z "$pASS:-" ] && stty -echo; getv move -n "Password: " && : ; stty echo; echo ''; echo "$head spool $FIFO" > "$GET" cat "$sqlX" >> "$GET" ( sqlplus -silent "$consumer/$pass@$TNS" "@$GET" | sed -n '0~10000p' ) & unset pass echo ".mode csv .import $FIFO $tABL" > "$PUT" sqlite3 "$fILE" ".examine $PUT" wait

    The script need to have a few components in order to operate a desk switch, and will immediate for them if they are not targeted. Of certain observe is the TNS (clear network Substrate); there are commented examples allowing the script to be locked to a particular target, either executed as a local sysDBA, or with a full descriptor for a faraway database - if these aren't set and the -n option is absent, it might be triggered.

    Some variant of this script may run on windows. The Busybox Win32 POSIX shell does not enforce mkfifo; Cygwin or the WSL may be a better option.

    The necessities and conduct of the script are most suitable described with an illustration export run:

    $ time ./textract.sh -f orasys.db3 -u fishecj \ -s all_objects-dump.sql -t all_objects Logging in / executing as fishecj. Password: "SCOTT","EMPPK",,10775,20472,"INDEX",1366667998,1369409340,"2013-04-22:21:fifty nine:fifty eight","legitimate","N","N","N" "TIGER","DEPT",,29780,,"SYNONYM",1371564246,1371564246,"2013-06-18:14:04:06","valid","N","N","N" eliminated ‘/tmp/textractpH3qJ/fifo.lst’ eliminated ‘/tmp/textractpH3qJ/get.sql’ removed ‘/tmp/textractpH3qJ/put.sql’ rmdir: disposing of listing, ‘/tmp/textractpH3qJ’ precise 0m7.885s person 0m0.448s sys 0m0.078s
  • there's a commented -p choice to specify the Oracle account password on the command line; this should still now not be used, because it might be entered into the command historical past and may seem as an argument in /proc/*/cmdline.
  • as soon as the script is running, each sqlplus and sqlite will talk by the use of the fifo.lst created in the temporary directory, and will be seen as ingesting CPU within the precise report.
  • One out of every 10,000 CSV lines processed is printed on the regular output to point out continuing recreation; if this is not favored, get rid of the sed and redirect the sqlplus output to the null machine. For extra thorough silence, eradicate the -v options within the exit entice.
  • The date_to_unixts characteristic have to be visible when executing the script, either as an object created in the local account, or by way of a synonym granted by means of another proprietor.
  • If operating beneath bash or Korn, use the whole "redsymbol" strict mode. Debian's sprint POSIX shell doesn't put into effect set -o; if your shell does, permit it.
  • When debugging the script, it's constructive to remark out the trap trigger.
  • there's a SQLite library so as to deliver the equivalent of external tables, for an alternate method to CSV processing.
  • The transfer of ALL_OBJECTS may still be quite short (7 seconds, as recorded above). ascertain the row counts and DATEs from Oracle sqlplus and SQLite:

    SQL> opt for count(*) from all_objects; count(*) ---------- 23699 SQL> choose created, last_ddl_time from all_objects the place object_name='EMPPK'; CREATED LAST_DDL_TIME ------------------- ------------------- 2013-04-22 21:fifty nine:58 2013-05-24 15:29:00

    These Oracle outcomes don't fairly consider sqlite, if we verify the DATEs carefully:

    $ sqlite3 orasys.db3 SQLite edition 3.36.0 2021-06-18 18:36:39 Enter ".aid" for usage guidelines. sqlite> select count(*) from all_objects; 23699 sqlite> select * from all_objects where object_name='EMPPK'; SCOTT|EMPPK||10775.0|20472.0|INDEX|1366667998|1369409340|2013-04-22:21:59:58|legitimate|N|N|N sqlite> select datetime(CREATED, 'unixepoch', 'localtime'), datetime(LAST_DDL_TIME, 'unixepoch', 'localtime') from all_objects the place object_name='EMPPK'; 2013-04-22 16:fifty nine:fifty eight|2013-05-24 10:29:00 sqlite> choose datetime(CREATED, 'unixepoch'), datetime(LAST_DDL_TIME, 'unixepoch') from all_objects where object_name='EMPPK'; 2013-04-22 21:59:58|2013-05-24 15:29:00 sqlite> .quit

    The DATEs range through the local time zone, until the localtime argument is eliminated.

    we are able to create and populate a small Oracle desk to verify that we can exceed the 2038 restrict:

    create desk birthday (who varchar2(4000), theday date); insert into birthday values ('joe', to_date('2030/04/01','YYYY/MM/DD')); insert into birthday values ('jane', to_date('2040/05/01','YYYY/MM/DD')); insert into birthday values ('jed', to_date('2050/06/01','YYYY/MM/DD')); insert into birthday values ('jill', to_date('9999/12/31','YYYY/MM/DD')); commit;

    After the export process above:

    sqlite> select * from birthday; joe|1901232000 jane|2219443200 jed|2537654400 jill|253400000000 sqlite> choose who, datetime(theday, 'unixepoch', 'localtime') from birthday; joe|2030-03-31 19:00:00 jane|2040-04-30 18:00:00 jed|2050-05-31 18:00:00 jill|9999-12-05 02:fifty three:20 sqlite> choose who, datetime(theday, 'unixepoch') from birthday; joe|2030-04-01 00:00:00 jane|2040-05-01 00:00:00 jed|2050-06-01 00:00:00 jill|9999-12-05 08:53:20

    The epoch time does not take us somewhat to the end of the yr 9,999, however it's shut enough.

    dg4odbc

    The CSV switch mode above is far more respectable than dg4odbc, as may be shown in the effects of this area. Database links at once into SQLite are fascinating as they can maintain transaction integrity, however the interface is brittle and liable to failure.

    devoid of an energetic Oracle help contract, dg4odbc should no longer be relied upon for production use with SQLite. those the usage of Oracle's free XE database with out aid may still prevent dg4odbc if at all possible. The ODBC server equipment consists of the warning: “the driving force is usable however can also include bugs. Use it for your personal risk.”

    To proceed with ODBC installation, right here OS programs must be put in:

    # yum install sqlite sqlite-devel unixODBC unixODBC-devel Loaded plugins: langpacks, ulninfo package sqlite-three.7.17-eight.el7_7.1.x86_64 already installed and newest versionPackage unixODBC-2.three.1-14.0.1.el7.x86_64 already installed and newest versionResolving Dependencies --> running transaction check ---> equipment sqlite-devel.x86_64 0:3.7.17-eight.el7_7.1 could be installed ---> kit unixODBC-devel.x86_64 0:2.3.1-14.0.1.el7 can be installed --> accomplished Dependency resolution Dependencies Resolved ================================================================================ equipment Arch edition Repository measurement ================================================================================ installation: sqlite-devel x86_64 3.7.17-8.el7_7.1 ol7_latest 104 ok unixODBC-devel x86_64 2.3.1-14.0.1.el7 ol7_latest 54 okay Transaction summary ================================================================================ deploy 2 programs total download size: 158 okay put in dimension: 552 okay is that this adequate [y/d/N]: y Downloading applications: (1/2): unixODBC-devel-2.3.1-14.0.1.el7.x86_64.rpm | 54 kB 00:00 (2/2): sqlite-devel-3.7.17-eight.el7_7.1.x86_64.rpm | 104 kB 00:03 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- complete forty seven kB/s | 158 kB 00:03 running transaction assess working transaction testTransaction verify succeeded running transaction installation : sqlite-devel-3.7.17-eight.el7_7.1.x86_64 1/2 setting up : unixODBC-devel-2.three.1-14.0.1.el7.x86_64 2/2 Verifying : unixODBC-devel-2.three.1-14.0.1.el7.x86_64 1/2 Verifying : sqlite-devel-three.7.17-eight.el7_7.1.x86_64 2/2 installed: sqlite-devel.x86_64 0:3.7.17-eight.el7_7.1 unixODBC-devel.x86_64 0:2.three.1-14.0.1.el7 finished!

    The SQLite ODBC kit is distributed in supply form. For programs in line with RedHat, there's a supply RPM that may readily construct installable applications. gain it, and built the binary equipment with right here command (if you want to require an installled C compiler):

    rpmbuild --rebuild sqliteodbc-0.9998-1.src.rpm

    When the build is finished, the compiled applications can be found in here region:

    $ ll ~/rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64/ total 408 -rw-rw-r--. 1 cfisher cfisher 120440 Jul 12 19:08 sqliteodbc-0.9998-1.x86_64.rpm -rw-rw-r--. 1 cfisher cfisher 294704 Jul 12 19:08 sqliteodbc-debuginfo-0.9998-1.x86_64.rpm

    installation the desired programs heading in the right direction servers:

    # rpm -Uvh ~fishecj/rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64/sqliteodbc-0.9998-1.x86_64.rpm getting ready... ################################# [100%] Updating / setting up... 1:sqliteodbc-0.9998-1 ################################# [100%] odbcinst: Driver installed. utilization count extended to 1. target directory is /and so forth

    determine the README:

    # rpm -ql sqliteodbc /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_blobtoxy-0.9998.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_blobtoxy.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_csvtable-0.9998.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_csvtable.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_impexp-0.9998.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_impexp.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_xpath-0.9998.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_xpath.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_zipfile-0.9998.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3_mod_zipfile.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3odbc-0.9998.so /usr/lib64/libsqlite3odbc.so /usr/share/doc/sqliteodbc-0.9998 /usr/share/doc/sqliteodbc-0.9998/ChangeLog /usr/share/doc/sqliteodbc-0.9998/README /usr/share/doc/sqliteodbc-0.9998/license.phrases

    note the driver specification has been added:

    # cat /and many others/odbcinst.ini [ODBC Driver 11 for SQL Server] Description=Microsoft ODBC Driver eleven for SQL Server Driver=/choose/microsoft/msodbcsql/lib64/libmsodbcsql-11.0.so.2270.0 Threading=1 UsageCount=1 [SQLITE3] Description=SQLite ODBC three.X Driver=/usr/lib64/libsqlite3odbc.so Setup=/usr/lib64/libsqlite3odbc.so Threading=2 FileUsage=1 UsageCount=1

    A bogus world handle has also been brought:

    # tail -2 /and many others/odbc.ini [SQLite3 Datasource] Driver=SQLITE3

    As root, add a driver for a selected SQLite database file, created within the last section (note that the /etc/odbc.ini is world for all users, area to filesystem permissions; deepest odbc.ini files may also be created, however don't seem to be lined here):

    echo ' [SQLitec1] Description=textract p.cDriver=/usr/lib64/libsqlite3odbc.so Database=/domestic/oracle/orasys.db3 # not obligatory lock timeout in milliseconds Timeout=2000' >> /etc/odbc.ini

    check the driver with ODBC SQL device:

    # isql SQLitec1 +---------------------------------------+ | linked! | | | | sql-observation | | assist [tablename] | | stop | | | +---------------------------------------+ SQL> choose count(*) from all_objects; +-----------+ | count(*) | +-----------+ | 23699 | +-----------+ SQLRowCount returns 0 1 rows fetched SQL> select datetime(CREATED, 'unixepoch'), datetime(LAST_DDL_TIME, 'unixepoch') from all_objects where object_name='EMPPK'; +--------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ | datetime(CREATED, 'unixepoch') | datetime(LAST_DDL_TIME, 'unixepoch') | +--------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ | 2013-04-22 21:fifty nine:58 | 2013-05-24 15:29:00 | +--------------------------------+--------------------------------------+ SQLRowCount returns 0 1 rows fetched SQL> quit

    With the ODBC server add-ons in location, we're ready to configure connectivity for an init.ora particular to the Oracle dg4odbc customer.

    First, the DBA have to add a TNS client entry to the following file:

    $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora

    The TNS entry should still be comparable to the SID for the native database. be certain to healthy its configured host exactly:

    sqlitec1 = (DESCRIPTION= (handle= (PROTOCOL=tcp) (HOST=1.2.three.four) (PORT=1524)) (CONNECT_DATA= (SID=SQLitec1)) (HS=ok))

    as soon as the TNS customer entry is in place, the database listener need to be configured to launch the ODBC carrier on demand, with the aid of including an entry to here file:

    $ORACLE_HOME/community/admin/listener.ora

    the brand new provider may also be introduced to the present SID checklist:

    (SID_DESC= (SID_NAME=SQLitec1) (ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/Ora19) (program=dg4odbc) )

    At this factor, restart the listener:

    lsnrctl restart

    confidently, your listener experiences the brand new ODBC SID:

    provider "SQLitec1" has 1 instance(s). example "SQLitec1", fame UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this provider...

    finally, create a brand new init.ora file that objectives dg4odbc in the following region:

    $ORACLE_HOME/hs/admin/initSQLitec1.ora

    This file may still have right here contents:

    HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO = SQLitec1 HS_FDS_TRACE_LEVEL = four

    The tnsping utility can verify that the listener is aware about the new ODBC carrier:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/tnsping sqlitec1 TNS Ping Utility for Linux: edition 19.0.0.0.0 - creation on 09-JUL-2021 12:18:01 Copyright (c) 1997, 2020, Oracle. All rights reserved. attempting to contact (description=(address=(protocol=tcp)(host=1.2.three.4)(port=1521))(connect_data=(sid=SQLitec1))) ok (0 msec)

    The DBA is now able to create a database hyperlink for a connectivity verify:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus '/ as sysdba' SQL*Plus: liberate 19.0.0.0.0 - production on Thu Jul 8 13:45:19 2021 edition 19.3.0.0.0 Copyright (c) 1982, 2019, Oracle. All rights reserved. related to: Oracle Database 19c commercial enterprise version unencumber 19.0.0.0.0 - production version 19.three.0.0.0 SQL> create database link lite_c1 hook up with nouser recognized by way of nopass the usage of 'sqlitec1'; Database link created. SQL> select count number(*) from all_objects@lite_c1; count number(*) -------- 23699

    Notes:

    simple DML can now be performed upon SQLite databases from inside Oracle:

    SQL> delete from all_objects@lite_c1; 23699 rows deleted. SQL> commit; Commit finished.

    besides the fact that children, making an attempt to reinsert from the ALL_OBJECTS complex view...

    SQL> insert into all_objects@lite_c1 opt for owner -- 1 , OBJECT_NAME -- 2 , SUBOBJECT_NAME -- 3 , OBJECT_ID -- four , DATA_OBJECT_ID -- 5 , OBJECT_TYPE -- 6 , date_to_unixts(CREATED) -- 7 , date_to_unixts(LAST_DDL_TIME) -- eight , TIMESTAMP -- 9 , repute -- 10 , brief -- 11 , GENERATED -- 12 , SECONDARY -- 13 from sys.all_objects;

    ...meets repeated failure, even if many offending lines are changed through NULL:

    * ERROR at line 8: ORA-02070: database LITE_C1 doesn't help DECODE in this context * ERROR at line 9: ORA-02070: database LITE_C1 doesn't support operator 169 during this context * ERROR at line 10: ORA-02070: database LITE_C1 doesn't aid operator 169 during this context * ERROR at line eleven: ORA-02070: database LITE_C1 doesn't aid TO_CHAR in this context * ERROR at line 12: ORA-02070: database LITE_C1 does not support DECODE during this context * ERROR at line 13: ORA-02070: database LITE_C1 does not support DECODE in this context

    Insertion from advanced views appears to be a real issue for the database hyperlink; this undertaking is extra acceptable to the CSV transfer components within the previous area.

    Primitive DML does look like purposeful:

    SQL> insert into all_objects@lite_c1 (owner,OBJECT_NAME) values ('foo','bar'); 1 row created. SQL> commit; Commit comprehensive.

    The information inserted through Oracle does appear inside SQLite:

    SQL> choose * from all_objects@lite_c1; owner OBJECT_NAME ... ----- ----------- ... foo bar ...

    it is additionally viable for Oracle to file a far off SQLite edition if it is created as a view:

    sqlite> create view my_version as choose sqlite_version(); sqlite> select * from my_version; three.36.0

    Oracle is in a position to opt for this view:

    SQL> select * from my_version@lite_c1; sqlite_version() ---------------- three.7.17 SQL> choose version from v$illustration; edition ----------------- 19.0.0.0.0

    On RedHat eight, the shell file command is able to record the version of the ultimate SQLite that wrote to the database:

    $ file /domestic/oracle/orasys.db3 /domestic/oracle/orasys.db3: SQLite 3.x database, ultimate written the usage of SQLite version 3036000

    The ODBC instance uses an older SQLite version, and the downgrade is visible after ODBC has engaged in DML:

    $ file /home/oracle/orasys.db3 /home/oracle/orasys.db3: SQLite three.x database, remaining written using SQLite version 3026000

    ODBC also appears to fail with some SQL due to callback hyperlinks in the SQLite ODBC implementation, with the error:

    ORA-02025: all tables in the SQL statement should be on the remote database

    Realistically, this ODBC interface isn't potent.

    personal home page to the rescue

    As brittle as ODBC can be, php is equally respectable. Hypertext Preprocessor can quite simply tackle the long datatypes, only a single customer process is energetic at any time, and it runs as a shell interpreter apart from its standard place as a web server engine.

    Let's consider the outdated ALL_VIEWS that contained an extended column:

    SQL> desc all_views identify Null? class ----------------------------------------- -------- -------------- proprietor now not NULL VARCHAR2(30) VIEW_NAME now not NULL VARCHAR2(30) TEXT_LENGTH number textual content lengthy TYPE_TEXT_LENGTH quantity TYPE_TEXT VARCHAR2(4000) OID_TEXT_LENGTH number OID_TEXT VARCHAR2(4000) VIEW_TYPE_OWNER VARCHAR2(30) VIEW_TYPE VARCHAR2(30) SUPERVIEW_NAME VARCHAR2(30) EDITIONING_VIEW VARCHAR2(1)

    We may add a text column in vicinity for this table:

    $ sqlite3 orasys.db3 SQLite edition three.36.0 2021-06-18 18:36:39 Enter ".assist" for utilization tips. sqlite> create desk all_views ( ...> proprietor text -- 1 * ...> , VIEW_NAME textual content -- 2 ...> , TEXT_LENGTH NUM -- three ...> , text textual content ...> , TYPE_TEXT_LENGTH NUM -- 5 * ...> , TYPE_TEXT textual content -- 6 ...> , OID_TEXT_LENGTH NUM -- 7 ...> , OID_TEXT text -- eight ...> , VIEW_TYPE_OWNER text -- 9 ...> , VIEW_TYPE text -- 10 ...> , SUPERVIEW_NAME textual content -- eleven ...> , EDITIONING VIEW textual content -- 12 ...> );

    Then an easy script can copy the desk row-by-row, using bind variables. i'm presenting two versions below, one the usage of the native Hypertext Preprocessor SQLite type, and another the usage of the personal home page facts Objects (PDO) time-honored abstraction category. The PDO edition seems somewhat more clear.

    Hypertext Preprocessor Native SQLite $ cat dump_all_views-sqlite.Hypertext Preprocessor #!/usr/native/bin/php -f <?personal home page $litedb = new SQLite3('orasys.db3'); $conn = oci_connect(getenv('DBUSER'), getenv('DBPASS'), getenv('TNS')); $curs = oci_parse($conn, <<<'EndOfSQL' select * from all_views the place owner = higher(:the_owner) EndOfSQL ); oci_bind_by_name($curs, ':the_owner', $argv[1], -1); oci_execute($curs); $q = 'insert into ALL_VIEWS values ('; for($n = 0; $n < oci_num_fields($curs); $n++) $q .= ($n == 0 ? '?' : ',?'); $q .= ')'; $litedb->exec('start;'); $insert = $litedb->prepare($q); whereas($values = oci_fetch_array($curs, OCI_NUM + OCI_RETURN_NULLS + OCI_RETURN_LOBS)) foreach($values as $num => $val) $insert->bindParam($num + 1, $values[$num]); $insert->execute(); $insert->reset(); $litedb->exec('COMMIT;'); oci_free_statement($curs); oci_close($conn); ?> Hypertext Preprocessor PDO SQLite $ cat dump_all_views-PDO.personal home page #!/usr/native/bin/personal home page -f <?php $litedb = new PDO('sqlite:orasys.db3'); $conn = oci_connect(getenv('DBUSER'), getenv('DBPASS'), getenv('TNS')); $curs = oci_parse($conn, <<<'EndOfSQL' select * from all_views where owner = higher(:the_owner) EndOfSQL ); oci_bind_by_name($curs, ':the_owner', $argv[1], -1); oci_execute($curs); $sql = 'insert into ALL_VIEWS values ('; for($n = 0; $n < oci_num_fields($curs); $n++) $sql .= ($n == 0 ? '?' : ',?'); $sql .= ')'; $litedb->beginTransaction(); $insert = $litedb->prepare($sql); while($values = oci_fetch_array($curs, OCI_NUM + OCI_RETURN_NULLS + OCI_RETURN_LOBS)) $insert->execute($values); $litedb->commit(); oci_free_statement($curs); oci_close($conn); ?>

    Bind variables are lots more vital for Oracle than SQLite. Oracle has a “library cache” it really is capable of appreciate identical SQL and “gentle parse” it, which is tons quicker than non-cached SQL that should be “complicated parsed.” apart from the efficiency beneficial properties on a high-quantity SQL statement, bind variables additionally provide some protection in opposition t “SQL injection,” a benefit seemingly shared via SQLight. The previous textract SQL scripts above have used bind variables.

    SQLite bind variables may also be of the Oracle type (:the_owner within the scripts above) or the Sybase/SQL Server category (?,?,?...). The latter are bound through numeric place, and the previous by using express identify. The SQLite type starts the ? numeric positions at 1, now not zero.

    beneath is an illustration execution with the intention to extract this desk (be aware that transmitting the password in this means will make it visible in /proc/*/environ, which is not a gold standard follow):

    $ export DBUSER=fishecj \ TNS='(description=(tackle=(protocol=tcp)(host=1.2.3.four)(port=1521))(connect_data=(sid=orcl)))' $ stty -echo; examine DBPASS; stty echo; echo '' $ DBPASS="$DBPASS" ./dump_all_views.Hypertext Preprocessor SYS

    Transaction manage seems to boost SQLite efficiency, because the script will run tons greater slowly if the beginTransaction and commit are eliminated.

    Now the total content material of Oracle's ALL_VIEWS for the sys consumer can also be viewed in SQLite:

    $ sqlite3 orasys.db3 SQLite edition three.36.0 2021-06-18 18:36:39 Enter ".support" for usage suggestions. sqlite> opt for count(*) from all_views; 3812 sqlite> choose textual content from all_views where view_name='ALL_VIEWS'; select u.identify, o.name, v.textlength, v.text, t.typetextlength, t.typetext, t.oidtextlength, t.oidtext, t.typeowner, t.typename, decode(bitand(v.property, 134217728), 134217728, (choose sv.name from superobj$ h, "_CURRENT_EDITION_OBJ" sv where h.subobj# = o.obj# and h.superobj# = sv.obj#), null), decode(bitand(v.property, 32), 32, 'Y', 'N'), decode(bitand(v.property, 16384), 16384, 'Y', 'N') from sys."_CURRENT_EDITION_OBJ" o, sys.view$ v, sys.consumer$ u, sys.typed_view$ t where o.obj# = v.obj# and o.obj# = t.obj#(+) and o.owner# = u.consumer# and (o.proprietor# = userenv('SCHEMAID') or o.obj# in (opt for oa.obj# from sys.objauth$ oa where oa.grantee# in ( select kzsrorol from x$kzsro ) ) or /* consumer has device privileges */ exists (choose null from v$enabledprivs where priv_number in (-forty five /* LOCK ANY table */, -forty seven /* select ANY table */, -48 /* INSERT ANY desk */, -forty nine /* replace ANY desk */, -50 /* DELETE ANY desk */) ) ) Conclusion

    Some clients carry terrific demands to legacy databases that cannot be effortlessly met because of scalability or licensing issues (Oracle database retail licensing is $47,500 per cpu core). SQLite is an alternative to offload such clients, and the pursuit of such an alternative impressed this text.

    There are certainly a number of eccentricities in SQLite that make it radically distinct from typical RDBMS environments. The intense syntax tolerance, classification fluidity, and absence of permissions are a shock for many clients.

    it's also far from complex to discover many DBAs who've under no circumstances heard of SQLite. whereas it is generally "under the radar" for IT administration, builders are regularly occurring to (ab)use it as they develop into pissed off with formal SOX-compliant corporate databases. When these developers circulate on, the clandestine records stores often do not obtain correct consideration.

    The pervasiveness of SQLite in cellphones and different customer electronics also borders on frightening. From this point of view, it's a first-rate surveillance device, with bad impacts on privacy.

    it's better for an IT firm to have familiarity with SQLite than now not, and auditors to have cognizance of appropriate use and facts exfiltration risks. The religion in access control in a client/server RDBMS can dissolve with a foul SQLite adventure; with a bit of luck this text will avoid that adventure for just a few.


    References


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